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Third Khandhaka

Residence During the Rainy Season, Vassa

Section One

1. At that time the Blessed One dwelt at Rājagaha, in the Veluvana, in the Kalandakanivāpa [1]. At that time the retreat during the rainy season had not yet been instituted by the Blessed One for the Bhikkhus. Thus the Bhikkhus went on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season.

2. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, saying, `How can the Sakyaputtiya samaõas go on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season? They crush the green herbs, they hurt vegetable life [2], they destroy the life of many small living things. Shall the ascetics who belong to titthiya schools, whose Doctrine is ill preached, retire during the rainy season and arrange places for themselves to live in [3]? Shall the birds make their nests on the summits of the trees, and retire during the rainy season, and arrange themselves places to live in; and yet the Sakyaputtiya samaõas go on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season, crushing the green herbs, hunting vegetable life, and destroying the life of many small things?'

3. Now some Bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry.

These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you enter upon vassa [4].'

Section Two

1. Now the Bhikkhus thought: `When are we to enter upon vassa?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you enter upon vassa in the rainy season.'

2. Then the Bhikkhus thought: `how many periods are there for entering upon vassa

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`There are two periods, O Bhikkhus, for entering upon vassa, the earlier and the later. The earlier time for entering [upon vassa] is the day after the full moon of Asālha [June-July]; the later, a month after the full moon of Asālha [5]. These, O Bhikkhus, are the two periods for entering upon vassa.'

Section Three

1. At that time the chabbaggiyā Bhikkhus, having entered upon vassa, went on their travels during the period of vassa. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry [saying], `How can the Sakyaputtiya samaõas go on their travels alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season [and etc., as in chap.1.2, down to:] and destroy the life of many small living things?'

2. Now some Bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry [saying], `How can the chabbaggiyā Bhikkhus, having entered upon vassa, go on their travels during the period of vassa?'

These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One after having delivered a religious discourse thus addressed the Bhikkhus.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, who has entered upon vassa, go on his travels before he has kept vassa during the earlier or during the later three months. He who does so, commits a dukkaņa offence.'

Section Four

1. At that time the chabbaggiyā Bhikkhus were not willing to enter upon vassa.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus forbear to enter upon vassa. He who does not enter upon vassa, commits a dukkaņa offence.'

2. At that time the chabbaggiyā Bhikkhus, who were not willing to enter upon vassa on the prescribed day, purposely left the district [where they were living].

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, purposely leave the district [where he is living], because he is not willing to enter upon vassa on the prescribed day. He who does, commits a dukkaņa offence.'

3. At that time the Magadha King Seniya Bimbisāra, who wished that the vassa period might be postponed, sent a messenger to the Bhikkhus: `What if their reverences were to enter upon vassa on the next full moon day?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you obey kings.'

Section Five

1. And the Blessed One, after having resided at Rājagaha as long as He thought fit, went forth to Sāvatthi. Wandering from place to place He came to Sāvatthi. There, at Sāvatthi, the Blessed One dwelt in the Jetavana, the garden of Anāthapindika.

At that time an upāsaka [lay devotee] named Udena, in the Kosala country, had a vihāra built for the saīgha. He sent a messenger to the Bhikkhus [saying], `Might their reverences come hither; I desire to bestow gifts [on the saīgha] and to hear the Dhamma and to see the Bhikkhus.'

2. The Bhikkhus replied: `The Blessed One has prescribed, friend, that no one who has entered upon vassa, may go on a journey before he has kept vassa during the earlier or during the later three months. Let the upāsaka Udena wait so long as the Bhikkhus keep their vassa residence; when they have finished vassa, they will go. But if there is any urgent necessity, let him dedicate the vihāra in presence of the Bhikkhus who reside there.'

3. The upāsaka Udena was annoyed, murmured, and became angry [saying], `How can their reverences, when I send for them, refuse to come? I am a giver and a doer [of good works], and do service to the fraternity.' Some Bhikkhus heard the upāsaka Udena, who was annoyed, and etc. These Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

4. In consequence of that the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

`I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go [even during the rainy season], if the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, and if you are sent for, but not if you are not sent for, by a person of one of the following seven classes: Bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis, sikkhamānās [6], sāmaneras, sāmaneris, lay devotees, female lay devotees. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go, if the thing [you go for] can be accomplished in seven days, and if you are sent for, but not if you are not sent for, by a person of one of these seven classes. Within seven days you ought to return.

5. `In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsaka has built a vihāra for the saīgha. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus [saying], "Might their reverences come hither; I desire to bestow gifts [on them] and to hear the Dhamma and to see the Bhikkhus," you ought to go, O Bhikkhus, if the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, and if he sends for you, but not if he does not send for you. Within seven days you ought to return.

6. `In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsaka has built for the saīgha an addhayoga [7], has built a storied house, has built an attic, has constructed a cave, a cell, a store-room, a refectory, a fire-room, a warehouse [8], a privy, a place to walk in, a house to walk in, a well, a well house, a gantāghara [9], a gantāghara room [10], a lotus-pond, a pavilion,, a park; or [\q 304/] has prepared the site for a park. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus [and etc., as in down to the end of the section].

7. `In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsaka has built for a number of Bhikkhus an addhayoga . . . [as in sect.6 to the end of the section] . . . or one Bhikkhu a vihāra, an addhayoga, a storied house [and etc., as in sect.6 to the end].

8. `In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsaka has built for the sisterhood of Bhikkhunis, and etc., for a number of Bhikkhunis, for one Bhikkhuní, for a number of sikkhamānās, for one sikkhamānā, for a number of sāmaneras, for one sāmanera, for a number of sāmaneris, for one sāmaneri, a vihāra and etc. [11] If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus and etc.

9. `In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsaka has built for his own use a residence, a sleeping room, a stable [12], a tower, a one-peaked building [13], a shop, a boutique, a storied house, an attic, a cave, a cell, a store-room, a refectory, a fire-room, a kitchen, a privy, a place to walk in, a house to walk in, a well, a well house, a gantāghara, a gantāghara room, a lotus-pond, a pavilion, a park, or has prepared the site for a park; or that his son is to choose a consort; or that his daughter is to choose a consort; or that he is sick; or that he knows how to recite a celebrated stunt. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus [saying], "Might their reverences come and learn this suttanta; otherwise this suttanta will fall into oblivion;" or if he has any other business or any work to be done; and if he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus [saying], "Might their reverences come hither" [and etc.] then you ought to go [and etc., as in sect.5, down to:] you ought to return.

10-12. `In case, O Bhikkhus, an upāsikā has built a vihāra for the saīgha [and etc., as in sects. 5-9 [14]].

13. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has built, and etc., a Bhikkhuní, a sikkhamānā, a sāmanera, a sāmaneri has built for the saīgha, for a number of Bhikkhus, for one Bhikkhu, for the sisterhood of Bhikkhunis . For one sāmaneri, for his own use, a vihāra [and etc., as in sect.8].'

Section Six

At that time a certain Bhikkhu was sick. He sent a messenger to the Bhikkhus [saying], `I am sick; might the Bhikkhus come to me; I long for the Bhikkhus coming.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go [even during the rainy season], if the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, even if you are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a person of one of the following five classes: Bhikkhus, `Bhikkhunis, sikkhamānās, sāmaneras, and sāmaneris. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go, if the affair for which you go can be accomplished in seven days, even if you are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a person of one of these five classes. Within seven days you ought to return.

2. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is sick. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus [saying], "I am sick; might the Bhikkhus come to me; I long for the Bhikkhus' coming," you ought to go, O Bhikkhus, if the thing can be accomplished in seven days, even if he had not sent for you, much more when he has sent [saying to yourselves]: "I will try to get food for the sick, or food for the tender of the sick, or medicine for the sick, or I will ask him [questions referring to the Dhamma], or nurse him." Within seven days you ought to return.

3. `In case, O Bhikkhus, inward struggles have befallen a Bhikkhu. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus: "Inward struggles have befallen me; might the Bhikkhus come to me; I long for the Bhikkhus' coming," you ought to go [and etc., as in sect.2, down to]: [saying to yourselves]: "I will try to appease those struggles, or cause them to be appeased [by another], or compose him by religious conversation." Within seven days you ought to return.

4. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu in whose mind doubts of conscience have arisen sends [and etc., as in sect.3, down to]: [saying to yourselves]: "I will try to dispel those doubts, or cause them to be dispelled, or compose him by religious conversation." Within seven days you ought to return.

5. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu takes to a false Doctrine. If he sends [and etc., down to]: [saying to yourselves]: "I will discuss that false Doctrine, or cause another to discuss it, or compose [that Bhikkhu] by religious conversation." Within seven days you ought to return.

6. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu is guilty of a grave offence and ought to be sentenced to parivāsa discipline. If he sends [and etc., down to]: [saying to yourselves]: "I will take care that he may be sentenced to parivāsa discipline, or I will propose the resolution [to the assembly], or I will help to complete the quorum [required for passing the sentence of parivāsa]." Within seven days you ought to return.

7. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu ought to be sentenced to recommence penal discipline. If he sends [and etc., as in sect.6, down to the end of the section].

8. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu ought to have the mānatta discipline imposed upon him. If he sends [and etc., as in sect.6, down to the end of the section].

9. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu [having duly undergone penal discipline] ought to be rehabilitated. If he sends [and etc., as in sect.6].

10. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the saīgha is going to proceed against a Bhikkhu by the tajjaniyakarnma, or the nissaya, or the pabbājaniya kamma, or the patisāraniyakamma, or the ukkhepaniyakamma. If that Bhikkhu sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus [saying], "The saīgha [\q 308/] is going to proceed against me; might the Bhikkhus come to me; I long for the Bhikkhus' coming," you ought to go [and etc., as in sect.2, down to]: [saying to yourselves]: "What can be done in order that the saīgha may not proceed [against that Bhikkhu] or may mitigate the proceeding?" Within seven days you ought to return.

11. `Or the saīgha has instituted a proceeding against him, the tajjaniyakamma [and etc., down to]: or the ukkhepaniyakamma; if he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus: "The saīgha has instituted a proceeding against me; might the Bhikkhus come to me; I long for the Bhikkhus' coming," you ought to go [and etc., as in sect.3, down to]: [saying to yourselves]: "What can be done in order that this Bhikkhu may behave himself properly, live modestly, and aspire to get clear of his penance, and that the saīgha may revoke its sentence?" Within seven days you ought to return.

12-15. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhuní is sick, and etc. [15]

16. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhuní is guilty of a grave offence and ought to be sentenced to mānatta discipline [16]. If she sends . . . [as in sect.3, down to]: [saying to yourselves]: "I will take care that she may be sentenced to mānatta discipline [17]." Within seven days you ought to return.

17. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhuní ought to be sentenced to recommence penal discipline [and etc., as in sect.7].

18. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhuní who is to be rehabilitated [and etc., as in sect.9].

19. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the saīgha is going to proceed against a Bhikkhuní by the tajjaniyakamma [and etc., as in sect.10].

20. `Or the saīgha has instituted a proceeding against her [and etc., as in sect.11].

21, 22. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a sikkhamānā is sick [and etc., see sects. 2-5].

`In case, O Bhikkhus, a sikkhamānāhas violated [18] the precepts [in which she is trained]. If she sends [and etc., as in sect.3, down to]: [saying to yourselves]: "I will take care that she may take upon herself the precepts, [again]." Within seven days you ought to return.

23. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a sikkhamānā desires to receive the upasampadā ordination. If she sends, and etc. you ought to go [saying to yourselves]: "I will take care that she may receive the upasampadā ordination, or I will proclaim the formula [of ordination before the assembly], or I will help to complete the quorum." Within seven days you ought to return.

24, 25. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a sāmanera is sick [and etc., as in sects. 2-5] a sāmanera desires [\q 310/] to ask concerning vassa [19]. If he sends . . . . [saying to yourselves]: "I will ask him or I will tell it to him." Within seven days you ought to return.

26. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a sāmanera who desires to receive the upasampadā ordination [and etc., see sect.23].

27, 28. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a sāmaneri is sick [and etc., see sects. 24-25].

29. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a sāmaneri desires to take upon herself the precepts. If she sends and etc., you should go [saying to yourselves]: "I will take care that she may take upon herself the precepts." Within seven days you ought to return.'

Section Seven

1. At that time the mother of a Bhikkhu was sick. She sent a messenger to her son [saying], `I am sick; might my son come to me; I long for my son's coming.' Now that Bhikkhu thought: `The Blessed One has allowed [a Bhikkhu] to go, if the affair for, which he goes can be accomplished within seven days, and if he is sent for, but not if he is not sent for, by a person of any one of the seven classes; [and he has also allowed to go], if the thing he goes for can be accomplished within seven days, even if he is not sent for, and much more if he is sent for, by a person of any one of the five classes. Now my mother is sick; she is not a lay-devotee [upāsikā]. What am I, therefore, to do.?' [\q 311/]

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. `I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go [even during the rainy season], if the thing you go for can be accomplished within seven days, even if you are not sent for, and much more if you are sent for, by a person of any one of the following seven classes: Bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis, sikkhamānās, sāmaneras, sāmaneris, the mother, and the father. I allow your O Bhikkhus, to go, if the thing you go for can be accomplished within seven days, even if you are not sent for and much more if you are sent for by a person of any one of these seven classes. Within seven days you ought to return.

3. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's mother is sick. If she sends a messenger to her son [saying], "I am sick; might my son come to me; I long for my son's coming [and etc., See chap.6.2]."

4. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's father is sick [and etc., as in sect.3].

5, `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's brother is sick. If he sends a messenger to his brother [saying], "I am sick; might my brother come to me; I long for my brother's coming," he ought to go, O Bhikkhus, if the affair can be accomplished within seven days, and if he sends for him, but not if he does not send for him. Within seven days he ought to return.

6. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu's sister is sick [and etc., see sect.5].

7. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a relation of a Bhikkhu is sick. If he sends a messenger to that Bhikkhu [saying], "I am sick; might his reverence come to me" [and etc., as in sect.5].

8. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a person that used to live with the Bhikkhus [20] is sick. If he sends a messenger to the Bhikkhus [saying], "I am sick; might the Bhikkhus come to me" [and etc., as in sect.5].'

Section Eight

At that time a vihāra belonging to the saīgha went to ruin. A certain upāsaka had a quantity of wood cut in the forest. He sent a messenger to the Bhikkhus [saying], `If their reverences will fetch that wood, I will give it to them.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go out on the saīgha's business. Within seven days you ought to return.'
 
 

End of the First Bhānavāra About the Vassa

Residence.

Section Nine

1. At that time the Bhikkhus of a certain district in the Kosala country who had entered upon vassa, were troubled [21] by beasts of prey; the beasts carried them off and killed them.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa are troubled by beasts of prey, and the beasts carry them off and kill them: this is to be considered as a case of danger, and they ought to leave that residence. They are not guilty of interruption of vassa.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, are infested by snakes; they bite them and kill them. This is to be considered as a case of danger [and etc., as in sect.1, down to] vassa.

2. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, are troubled by robbers; the robbers plunder them and beat them. This is to be considered [and etc., as in sect.1] vassa.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, are troubled by demons the demons enter into them and take their power from them. This is to be considered [and etc., as in sect.1] vassa.

3. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the village near which the Bhikkhus have entered upon vassa, is destroyed by fire; the Bhikkhus suffer from want of food. This is to be considered [and etc., as in sect.1] vassa.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, the places of rest of the Bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, are destroyed by fire; the Bhikkhus suffer from having no place of rest. This is to be considered [and etc., as in sect.1] vassa.

4. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the village near which the Bhikkhus have entered upon vassa, is destroyed by water; the Bhikkhus suffer from want of food [and etc., as in sect.1] vassa.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, the places of rest of the Bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, are destroyed by water; the Bhikkhus suffer from having no place of rest [and etc., as in sect.1] vassa.'
  

Section Ten

At that time the village near which the Bhikkhus of a certain district had entered upon vassa, was transferred to another place through [fear of] robbers.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you go where the village is.'

The village [people] divided themselves in two parts.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you go where the greater part is.'

The greater part were unbelieving, unconverted people.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you go where the believing, converted people are.'

Section Eleven

1. At that time the Bhikkhus of a certain district in the Kosala country who had entered upon vassa, could get [there] neither coarse nor fine food sufficiently as required.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, can get neither coarse nor fine food sufficiently as required. This is to be considered as a case of danger, and they ought to leave that residence. They are not guilty of interruption of vassa.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, get food coarse or fine sufficiently as required, but they cannot get sustaining food. This is to be considered [and etc., as in sect.1] vassa.

2. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who have entered upon vassa, get food coarse or fine sufficiently as required, they get sustaining food, but they cannot get proper medicine. This is to be considered [and etc., as in sect.1] vassa.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus [and etc., as sect.1, down to] sustaining food, and they can get profitable medicine, but they cannot find suitable laymen to do service to them. This is to be considered [and etc., as in sect.1] vassa.

3. `In case, O Bhikkhus, to a Bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, a woman makes an offer [in these words]: "Come, Venerable Sir, I give you gold, or I give you bullion [22], or I give you a field, or I give you a site [for a house or a garden], or I give you an ox, or I give you a cow, or I give you a slave, or I give you a female slave, or I give you my daughter as your wife, or I will be your wife, or I get another wife for you." In that case, if the Bhikkhu thinks: "The Blessed One has said that the mind of men is easily changeable; danger might arise to the purity of my life.," he ought to go away from that place. He is not guilty of interruption of vassa.

4. `In case, O Bhikkhus, to a Bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, a harlot makes an offer, &d., An adult girl makes an offer, and etc., a eunuch makes an offer, and etc., relations make an offer, and etc., kings make an offer, and etc., robbers make an offer, and etc., rascals make an offer [in these words]: "Come, Venerable Sir, we give you gold [and etc., down to] or we give you our daughter as your wife, or we get another wife for you." In that case [and etc., as in sect.3, down to] vassa.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, finds an ownerless treasure. In that case [and etc., as in sect.3, down to] vassa.

5. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, sees a number of Bhikkhus who strive to cause divisions in the saīgha. In that case, if that Bhikkhu thinks: "The Blessed One has said that it is a grievous sin to cause divisions in the saīgha; may no division arise in the saīgha in my presence," let him go away. He is not guilty of interruption of vassa.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears: "A number of Bhikkhus are striving to cause divisions in the saīgha." In that case [and etc., as in sect.5, down to] vassa.

6. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears: "In such and such a district a number of Bhikkhus are striving to cause divisions in the saīgha." If that Bhikkhu thinks: "Those Bhikkhus are friends of mine; I will say to them: `The Blessed One, my friends, has said that it is a grievous sin to cause divisions in the saīgha; let not divisions in the saīgha please you, Sirs;' then they will do what I say, they will obey me and give ear," in that case let him go [to that place]. He is not guilty of interruption of vassa.

7. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa,' hears: "In such and such a district a number of Bhikkhus are striving to cause divisions in the, saīgha." If that Bhikkhu thinks: "Those Bhikkhus are not friends of mine, but their friends are friends of mine; to these I will say, and they will say to their friends: `The Blessed One [and etc., as in sect.6, down to] vassa.

8. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears: "In such and such a district divisions in the saīgha have been caused by a number of Bhikkhus." If that Bhikkhu [and etc., as in sect.6, down to] vassa.

9. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears: "In such and such a district divisions in the saīgha have been caused by a number of Bhikkhus." If that Bhikkhu [and etc., as in sect.7] vassa.

10-13. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu who has entered upon vassa, hears "In such and such a district a number of Bhikkhunis strive to cause divisions in the saīgha [and etc. [23]]"'

Section Twelve

1. At that time a Bhikkhu desired to enter upon vassa in a cattle-pen.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enter upon vassa in a cattle-pen.'

The cattle-pen was moved from its place.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to go with the cattle-pen.'

2. At that time a Bhikkhu, when the time for entering upon vassa approached, desired to go on a journey with a caravan.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enter upon vassa in a caravan.'

At that time a Bhikkhu, when the time for entering upon vassa approached, desired to go on a journey in a ship.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to enter upon vassa in a ship.'

3. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon vassa in a hollow tree. People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: ` [These Bhikkhus behave] like goblins [24].'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus; enter upon vassa in a hollow tree. He who does, commits a dukkaņa offence.'

4. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon vassa on a branch of a tree. People were annoyed, and etc.: ` [These Bhikkhus behave] like huntsmen.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus; enter upon vassa on a branch of a tree. He who does, commits a dukkaņa offence.'

5. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon vassa in the open air. When it began to rain, they ran up to the foot of a tree, or to the hollow of a nimba tree.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus; enter upon vassa in the open air. He, who does, commits a dukkaņa offence:

6. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon vassa without having a place of rest. They suffered from coldness and heat.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus; enter upon vassa without having a place of rest. He who does, commits a dukkaņa offence.'

7. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon vassa in a house for keeping dead bodies in. People were annoyed, and etc.: ` [These Bhikkhus are] like those who burn corpses.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus; enter upon vassa in a house for keeping dead bodies. He who does, commits a dukkaņa offence.'

8. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon vassa under a sunshade. People were annoyed, and etc.: `Like cowherds.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus; enter upon vassa under a sun-shade. He who does, commits a dukkaņa offence.'

9. At that time some Bhikkhus entered upon vassa under an earthenware vessel. People were annoyed, and etc.: `Like titthiyas.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus; enter upon vassa under an earthenware vessel. He who does, commits a dukkaņa offence.'

Section Thirteen

1. At that time the saīgha at Sāvatthi had made an agreement that nobody should receive the pabbajjā ordination during the rainy season. A grandson of Visākhā Migāramātā [25] went to the Bhikkhus and asked them for the pabbajjā ordination. The Bhikkhus said to him: `The saīgha, friend, has made an agreement that nobody shall receive the pabbajjā ordination during the rainy season. Wait, friend, as long as the Bhikkhus keep vassa; when they have concluded the vassa residence, they will confer on you the pabbajjā ordination.'

When those Bhikkhus had concluded the vassa residence, they said to the grandson of Visākhā Migāramātā: `Come now, friend, you may receive the pabbajjā ordination.' He replied: `If I had received the pabbajjā ordination before, Reverend Sirs, I should remain [in the religious life], but now, Reverend Sirs, I will not receive the pabbajjā ordination.'

2. Visākhā Migāramātā was annoyed, murmured, and became angry [saying], `How can the noble ones make such an agreement that nobody shall receive the pabbajjā ordination during the rainy season? At what time ought the duties of the Dhamma not to be performed?'

Some Bhikkhus heard Visākhā Migāramātā, who was annoyed, murmured, and had become angry.

Those Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

`Such an agreement, O Bhikkhus, ought not to be made -- that nobody shall receive the pabbajjā ordination during the rainy season. He who makes [an agreement like this], commits a dukkaņa offence.'

 

Section Fourteen

1. At that time the Venerable Upananda Sakyaputta had promised to King Pasenadi of Kosala to take up his vassa residence [with him] at the earlier period [26]. When he was going to the district [where he had consented to go to], he saw on his way two districts in which there were plenty of robes, and he thought: `What if I were to keep vassa in these two districts; thus shall I obtain many robes.' And he kept vassa in those two districts.

King Pasenadi of Kosala was annoyed, murmured, and became angry [saying], `How can the noble Upananda Sakyaputta, after he has promised us to take up his vassa residence [with us], break his word? Has not falsehood been reproved, and abstinence from falsehood been praised by the Blessed One in many ways?'

2. Some Bhikkhus heard King Pasenadi of Kosala, who was annoyed, and etc. The moderate Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry [saying], `How can the Venerable Upananda Sakyaputta, after he has promised to King Pasenadi of Kosala, and etc.? Has not falsehood [and etc., as in sect.1]?'

Those Bhikkhus told the thing to the Blessed One.

In consequence of that, the Blessed One, after having ordered the fraternity of Bhikkhus to assemble, asked the Venerable Upananda Sakyaputta: `Is it true, Upananda, that you have broken your word, having promised to King Pasenadi of Kosala to take up your vassa residence [with him]?'

`It is true, Lord'

Then the Blessed Buddha rebuked him: `how can you, O foolish one, break your word, having promised, and etc.? Has not falsehood, O foolish one, been reproved, and abstinence from falsehood been praised by me in many ways? This will not do, O foolish one, for converting the unconverted, and for augmenting the number of the converted, but it will result, O foolish one, in the unconverted being repulsed [from the faith] and many of the converted being estranged.'

Having reproved him and delivered a religious discourse He thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

4. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised [to a lay-devotee] to take up his vassa residence [with him] at the earlier period, and when he goes to that district, he sees on his way two districts in which there are plenty of robes, and he thinks: "What if I were to keep vassa in these two districts; thus shall I obtain many robes;" and he keeps vassa in those two districts. This Bhikkhu's [entering upon vassa], O Bhikkhus, [at the] earlier period is not valid, and as to his promise he has committed a dukkaņa offence.

5. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised [to a lay-devotee] to take up his vassa residence with him] at the earlier period, and when going to that district, he holds Uposatha outside [on the last day of the half month], and on the first day [of the next half month] he goes to the vihāra, prepares himself a place of rest, gets [water to] drink and food, sweeps the cell, and goes away that same day without having any business. This Bhikkhu's [entering upon vassa] [and etc., as in sect.4, down to] offence.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised [and etc., as in the preceding case, down to:] and goes away that same day having business. This Bhikkhu's [entering upon vassa] [and etc., as in sect.4, down to] offence.

6. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised, and etc., and having resided there two or three days, he goes away without having any business, and etc.; he goes away having business. This Bhikkhu's [entering upon vassa] [and etc., as in sect.4, down to] offence.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised, and etc., And having resided there two or three days, he goes away having a business which can be accomplished within seven days [27]; he is absent above those seven days. This Bhikkhu's [entering upon vassa] [and etc., as in sect.4, down to] offence.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, and etc., he returns within those seven days. This Bhikkhu's [entering upon vassa], O Bhikkhus, [at the] earlier period is valid, and as to his promise he has committed no offence.

7. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised, and etc., and goes away seven days before the pavāranā [28] having business. No matter, O Bhikkhus, whether that Bhikkhu comes back to that district or does not come back, this Bhikkhu's entering, and etc., is valid, and as to his promise he has committed no offence.

8-10. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised, and etc., and having gone to that district, he holds Uposatha there [on the last day of the half month], and on the first day [of the next half month] he goes to the vihāra, and etc. [29]

11. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu has promised [to a lay-devotee] to take up his vassa residence [with him] at the later period, and when going to that district, he holds Uposatha outside, and etc. [30]'

 

End of the Third Khandhaka, Which Treats of

Entering Upon Vassa.

Footnotes:

1.  See the note on I, 22, 17. About the name of Kalandakanivāpa [seeds of kalandaka? Feeding ground for squirrels?], See the story related in Beal, Romantic Legend, and etc., p. 315, where this place is said to be the gift of a merchant named kalandaka. A different account is given by Spence Hardy, Manual, p. 194.

2. Literally, living creatures which have but one organ of sense; that is, which have only the organ of feeling, viz. The outward form [kāya].

3.  Saīkāpayissanti = saīkappayissanti? Buddhaghosa: appossukka-nibaddha-vāsaü vasissanti.

4.  I.e. enter upon the retreat prescribed for the rainy season. Buddhaghosa: ` they are to look after their vihāra [if it is in a proper state], to provide food and water for themselves, to fulfil all due ceremonies, such as paying reverence to sacred shrines, and etc., And to say loudly once, or twice, or thrice: `I enter upon vassa in this vihāra for these three months." Thus they are to enter upon vassa.'

5.  Very probably this double period stands in connection with the double period prescribed in the Brāhmaõas and Såtras for most of the Vedic festivals. Thus the sacrifice of the varuõaprāghāsās, with which the Brahmans began the rainy season, was to be held either on the full moon day of âshādha or on the full moon day of the following month, úrāvaõa, quite in accordance with the Buddhistical rules about the vassupanāyikā. The Brāhmaõa texts begin the year with the full moon day of the [utter] Phālgunã; the sutras mention, besides the Phālgunã, another new year's day, the Caitrã paurnamāsã, which falls one month later. It was in connection with this dislocation of the beginning of the year that the annual festivals could be postponed accordingly. See Weber, Die Vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra, II, p. 329 seq.

6.  See the note on II, 36, 1.

7.  See the note on 1, 30, 4.

8.  This translation of kappiyakuņã is merely conjectural comp. kappiyabhåmi VI, 33.

9.  See the note on I, 25, 12.

10. See Cullavagga V, 16, 1.

11.  The enumeration of edifices is identical with that given in sect.6, but in the cases beginning with that of the sisterhood of Bhikkhunis [according to Buddhaghosa; we believe that the two cases referring to sāmaneras ought to be excepted] three of the edifices are left viz. The privy the gantāghara and the gantāghara room, the use of which is forbidden to nuns; see Cullavagga x, 27 3, 4,

12.  See Abhidhānapp. v. 213, and compare assabhaõķa hatthibhaõķa [Mahāvagga I, 61, 1].

13.  See Abhidhānapp. v. 209.

14.  Only it is said here of the Bhikkhus, ayyā, `the noble ones,' instead of bhaddantā, `their reverences.'

15.  See sects. 2-5. Read here and in all cases where the messenger is sent by a woman: `Might the noble ones [ayyā] come to me; I long for the noble ones' coming.'

16.  There is no parivāsa discipline for the Bhikkhunis. When a Bhikkhuni has committed a saīghādisesa offence, no matter whether she has concealed it or not she is sentenced to mānatta discipline for a fortnight. See Cullavagga X, 1, 4; 25, 3.

17.  The phrases, `or I will propose the resolution to the assembly, or I will help to complete the quorum' [see sect.6 seq.], Of course are omitted here, because, if the proceeding is directed against a Bhikkhuni, this is to be done. By a Bhikkhuni and not by a Bhikkhu. See Cullavagga X, 6, 3.
 

18.  This translation of sikkhā kupitā hoti is merely conjectural; Buddhaghosa has no note here. Comp. kuppa and akuppa.

19.  The technical meaning of vassaü pucchituü [to ask after vassa?] is unknown to us.

20.  Buddhaghosa: Bhikkhugatika is a person that dwells in the same vihāra with the Bhikkhus.

21.  Compare Jātaka I, 300,

22.  See Rh. D.'s `Ancient coins and measures of Ceylon,' p. 5 [`Numismata Orientalia,' vol. 1].

23.  See sects. 6-9. Instead of `a number of Bhikkhus' in these paragraphs, the subject is ` a number of Bhikkhunis.' instead of friends' or ` Sirs,' the address is ` Sisters.' in sects. 11, 13 read: `those Bhikkhunis are not friends of mine, but their [female] or friends of mine, and etc.'

24.  This must be about the sense of pisācillika [comp. Cullavagga V, 10, 2; 27, 5], Although we are not sure how - illika ought to be explained.

25.  Visākhā was the most distinguished among the upāsikās, and occupied a place among them similar to that which Anāthapindika, with whom she is frequently mentioned together, did among the upāsakas. See Dhammapada Aņņhak. p. 78, and etc.

26.  See chap, 2, sect. 2.

27.  See chap. 5 seq.

28.  I.e. before the concluding ceremony of vassa; see IV, 1, 13. Translated by I. B. Horner as `invitation', Book of the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

29.  Here follows an exact repetition of all the cases given in sects. 5-7 ; the only difference is, that in the former cases it was said: `When going to that district, he holds Uposatha outside,' instead of which it is said now having gone to that district, lie holds Uposatha there.'

30.  The cases given in sects. 5-10 are repeated here; instead of `earlier period,' it is said here `later period;' instead of before the pavāranā' [sect. 7], `before the komudi cātumāsinã.' The komudi cātumāsinã is the full moon day in the month Kattika, which is frequently called Kaumuda in the epic literature; the epithet cātumāsinã refers to the Vedic Cāturmāsya festival, which falls upon that day [Kātyāyana, úrautasåtra V, 6, 1]. For those who entered upon vassa at the later period [in the úrāvana month], the end of vassa fell on the komudi day.



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