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Second Khandhaka

The Uposatha Ceremony, and the PÓtimokkha

Section One

1. At that time the Blessed Buddha dwelt near RÓjagaha, on the Gigghakň˝a Mountain [`the vulture's peak']. At that time the paribbÓjakas belonging to titthiya schools assembled or the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half-month [1] and recited their Dhamma. The people went to them in order to hear the Dhamma. They were filled with favor towards, and were filled with faith in the paribbÓjakas belonging to titthiya schools; the paribbÓjakas belonging to titthiya schools gained adherents.

2. Now when the Magadha King Seniya BimbisÓra was alone, and had retired into solitude, the following consideration presented itself to his mind: `The paribbÓjakas belonging to titthiya schools assemble now on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half month and recite their Dhamma. The people go to them in order to hear the Dhamma. They are filled with favor towards, and are filled with faith in, the paribbÓjakas who belong to titthiya schools; the paribbÓjakas who belong to titthiya schools gain adherents. What if the Reverend ones [the Buddhist Bhikkhus] were to assemble also on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half month.'

3. Then the Magadha King Seniya BimbisÓra went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached Him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near Him. Sitting near Him the Magadha King Seniya BimbisÓra said to the Blessed One: `Lord, when I was alone and had retired into solitude the following, consideration presented itself to my mind: "The paribbÓjakas, and etc.; what if the Reverend ones were to assemble also on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half month." Well, Lord, let the Reverend ones assemble also on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half month.'

4. Then the Blessed One taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the Magadha King Seniya BimbisÓra by religious discourse; and the Magadha King Seniya BimbisÓra, having been taught . . . and gladdened by the Blessed One by religious discourse, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, passed round Him with his right side towards Him, and went away.

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: `I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you assemble on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each month.

 

Section Two

At that time the Bhikkhus, considering that the Blessed One had ordered them to assemble on the fourteenth and etc. day of each half month, assembled on the fourteenth and etc. day of each half month and sat there silent. The people went to them in order to hear the Dhamma. They were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `How can the Sakyaputtiya sama§as, when they have assembled on the fourteenth and etc. day of each half month, sit there silent, like the dumb, or like hogs? Ought they not, to recite the Dhamma, when they have assembled?' Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry; these Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: `I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you recite the Dhamma, when you have assembled on the fourteenth and etc. day of each half month.'

 

Section Three

1. Now when the Blessed One was alone and had retired into solitude, the following consideration presented itself to His mind: `What if I were to prescribe that the Bhikkhus recite as the PÓtimokkha [2] the precepts which I have promulgated to them; this will be their Uposatha service [service of the fast-day].'

2. And the Blessed One, having left the solitude in the evening, in consequence of that and on this occasion, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: `When I was alone, O Bhikkhus, and had retired into solitude, the following consideration, and etc., This will be their Uposatha service. I prescribe you, O Bhikkhus, to recite the PÓtimokkha.

3. `And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to recite it in this way: let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. Today it is Uposatha, the fifteenth [of the half month]. If the sa´gha is ready, let the sa´gha hold the Uposatha service and recite the PÓtimokkha. What ought to be first done by the sa´gha? Proclaim the pÓrisuddhi [3], Sirs, I will recite the PÓtimokkha."

`"We hear it well and fix well the mind on it all of us [4]."

`"He who has committed an offence, may confess it; if there is no offence, you should remain silent; from your being silent I shall understand that the Reverend brethren are pure [from offences]. As a single person that has been asked a question, answers it, the same is the matter if before an assembly like this a question has been solemnly proclaimed three times: if a Bhikkhu, after a threefold proclamation, does not confess an existing offence which he remembers, he commits an intentional falsehood. Now, Reverend brethren, an intentional falsehood has been declared an impediment [5] by the Blessed One. Therefore, by a Bhikkhu who has committed [an offence], and remembers it, and desires to become pure, an existing offence should be confessed; for if it has been confessed, it is treated duly."'

4. [6] `PÓtimokkhaŘ:' it is the beginning, it is the face [mukham], it is the principal [pamukham] of good qualities; therefore it is called `PÓtimokkhaŘ.' [7]

`Ôyasmanto:' this word `Óyasmanto' is an expression of friendliness, an expression of respect, an appellation that infers respectfulness and reverence.

`UddisissÓmi:' I will pronounce, I will show, I will proclaim, I will establish, I will unveil, I will distinguish, I will make evident, I will declare.

` Tam' [it]: this refers to the PÓtimokkha.

`Sabbe va santÓ' [all of us]: as many as are present in that assembly, aged, young, and middle-aged [Bhikkhus], are denoted by `sabbe va santÓ.' [8]

`SÓdhukaŘ su§oma' [we hear it well]: admitting its authority, fixing our minds on it, we repeat the whole of it in our thoughts.

`Manasikaroma' [we fix our minds on it]: we listen to it with concentrated, not perplexed, not confused thoughts.

5. `Yassa siyÓ Ópatti' [he who has committed an offence]: he who, whether an aged or young or middle-aged Bhikkhu, has committed some offence belonging to the five classes of offences or to the seven classes of offences. [9]

`So Óvikareyya:' he may show it, unveil it, make it evident, declare it before the sa´gha [the full chapter of Bhikkhus], or before a small number, or before one person.

`Asanti Ópatti' [a non-existing offence]: an offence which has not been committed, or which has been committed and atoned for.

`Tu§hi bhavitabbam' [he ought to remain silent]: he ought to accept [the recitation of the PÓtimokkha without any answer], he ought not to utter anything.

`ParisuddhÓ'ti vedissÓmi'[I shall understand that they are pure]: I shall infer, I shall know.

6. `YathÓ kho pana paccekaputthassa veyyÓkaranam hoti'[as a single person that has been asked a question answers it] : as a single person that has been asked a question by another one, would answer it, thus [those who are present] in that assembly ought to understand: `He asks me.'

`EvarňtpÓ parisÓ' [an assembly like this]: this refers to the assembly of Bhikkhus.

`YÓvatatiyam anussÓvitam hoti' [it has been solemnly proclaimed three times]: it has been solemnly proclaimed once, and the second time, and the third time.

`SaramÓno' [remembering it]: knowing it, being conscious of it.

`Santi Ópatti' [an existing offence]: an offence which has been committed, or which has been committed and not been atoned for.

`NÓvikareyya:' he does not show it, he does not unveil it, he does not make it evident, he does not declare it before the sa´gha, or before a small chapter, or before one person.

7. `SampajÓnamusÓvÓd' assa hoti' [he commits an intentional falsehood]: what is intentional falsehood? It is a sin. [10]

`AntarÓyiko dhammo vutto BhagavatÓĺ [it has been declared an impediment by the Blessed One]: an impediment to what? An impediment to the attainment of the first jhÓna, an impediment to the attainment of the second third fourth jhÓna, an impediment to the attainment of the jhÓnas, vimokkhas [11], samÓdhis [states of self-concentration], samÓpattis [the eight attainments of the four jhÓnas and four of the eight vimokkhas], the states of renunciation, of escape [from the world], of seclusion, of [all] good qualities.

` TasmÓ:' for that reason.

`SaramÓnena' [by him who remembers it]: by him who knows it and is conscious of it.

`VisuddhÓpekkhena' [by him who desires to become pure]: by him who wishes to atone for it and to make himself pure of it.

8. `Santa Ópatti' . . . [see sect.6].

`AvikÓtabbÓ' [it is to be confessed]: it is to be confessed before the sa´gha or before a small chapter, or before one person.

`AvikatÓ hi'ssa phÓsu hoti' [for if it has been confessed, it is treated duly]: duly for what purpose? In the due way for the attainment of the first jhÓna [and so on, as in sect.7, down to] of [all] good qualities.'
 

Section Four

1. At that time the Bhikkhus, considering that the PÓtimokkha recitation had been instituted by the Blessed One, recited the PÓtimokkha every day.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`The PÓtimokkha, O Bhikkhus, is not to be recited every day. He who recites it [every day], commits a dukka˝a offence. I ordain, O Bhikkhus, to recite the PÓtimokkha on the Uposatha day.'

2. At that time the Bhikkhus, considering that it had been prescribed by the Blessed One to recite the PÓtimokkha on the Uposatha, day, recited the PÓtimokkha three times each half month, on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and eighth day of each half month.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`The PÓtimokkha, O Bhikkhus, is not to be recited three times each half month. He who recites it [three times], commits a dukka˝a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you recite the PÓtimokkha once each half month, on the fourteenth or on the fifteenth day.'

Section Five

1. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus recited the PÓtimokkha according as they lived together, every one before his own companions.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`The PÓtimokkha, O Bhikkhus, is not to be recited according as [the Bhikkhus] live together, by every one before his own companions. He who recites it [in that way], commits a dukka˝a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the Uposatha service is to be held by the complete fraternity.'

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed that the Uposatha service is to be held by the complete fraternity. How far does completeness extend, as far as one residence [or one district], or all over the earth?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that completeness is to extend as far as one residence.'

3. At that time the Reverend MahÓ Kappina dwelt near RÓjagaha, in, the deer park of Maddakukkhi. Now [one day] when the Reverend MahÓ Kappina was alone and had retired into solitude, the following consideration presented itself to his mind: `Shall I go to the Uposatha service or shall I not go? Shall I go to the functions of the order or shall I not go? Indeed I have become pure by the highest purity [i.e. I have reached Arahatship or NirvÓna].'

4. Then the Blessed One, understanding by the power of His mind the reflection which had arisen in MahÓ Kappina's mind, disappeared from the Gigghakuta mountain and appeared in the deer park of Maddakukkhi, before the Reverend MahÓ Kappina [as quickly] as a strong man might stretch his bent arm out, or draw his outstretched arm back. The Blessed One sat down on a seat laid out for Him, and the Reverend MahÓ Kappina, after having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, sat down also near Him.

5. When the Reverend MahÓ Kappina was seated near Him, the Blessed One said to him: `When you were alone, Kappina, and had retired into solitude, has not the following consideration presented itself to your mind: "Shall I go [and etc., as in sect.3 down to:] by the highest purity?"'

`Even so, Lord.'

`If you brÓhma§as do not honor, do not regard, do not revere, do not pay reverence to the Uposatha, who will then honor, regard, revere, pay reverence to the Uposatha? Go to the Uposatha, O brÓhma§a, do not neglect to go; go to the functions of the order, do not neglect to go.' The Reverend MahÓ Kappina promised the Blessed One to do so [by saying], `Even so, Lord.'

6. Then, having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the Reverend MahÓ Kappina by a religious discourse, the Blessed One disappeared from the deer park of Maddakukkhi, from the presence of the Reverend MahÓ Kappina, and appeared on the Gigghakň˝a mountain [as quickly] as a strong man might stretch his bent arm out, or draw his outstretched arm back.
 

Section Six

Now the Bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed that completeness [of the assembled fraternity] is to extend as far as one residence [12]. Now how far does one residence extend?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you determine a boundary. And it ought to be determined, O Bhikkhus, in this way: first the landmarks are to be proclaimed: a landmark consisting in a mountain, in a rock, in a wood, in a tree, in a path, in an anthill, in a river in a piece of water. The landmarks having been proclaimed, let a learned competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the sa´gha is ready, let the sa´gha, as the landmarks have been proclaimed all around, by these landmarks determine the boundary for common residence and communion of Uposatha. This is the Ąatti. Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. The sa´gha determines the boundary, [and etc., as above]. Thus I understand."'
 

Section Seven

1. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus considering that fixing of boundaries had been prescribed by the Blessed One, fixed boundaries of excessive extension, of four yojanas, five yojanas, six yojanas. The Bhikkhus who came to the Uposatha, arrived when the PÓtimokkha was being recited, or when it had just been recited, or they were obliged to stay the night on the way.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, determine a boundary of excessive extension, of four, five, or six yojanas. He who determines [such a boundary], commits a dukka˝a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you determine boundaries of three yojanas extent at most.'

2. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus determined a boundary, which extended to the opposite side of a river. The Bhikkhus who came to the Uposatha, were carried down [by the river], and their alms-bowls and robes were carried away

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, determine a boundary which extends to the opposite side of a river. He who determines [such a boundary], commits a dukka˝a offence. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, if there is a regular communication by a ferry boat or a dike, at such places to determine a boundary which extends also to the opposite side of the river.'
 

Section Eight

I. At that time the Bhikkhus recited the PÓtimokkha in their successive cells without appointing [a certain place for doing so]. The Bhikkhus who arrived [from distant places], did not know where the Uposatha was to be held that day.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the PÓtimokkha in the successive cells without appointing a certain place for it. He who recites it [in this way], commits a dukka˝a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, the holding of Uposatha after having fixed upon an Uposatha hall, wherever the sa´gha likes, a vihÓra, or an addhayogas, or a storied building, or a house, or a cave [13]. And you ought to appoint it in this way:

2. ` Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the sa´gha is ready, let the sa´gha appoint the vihÓra called N.N. to be our Uposatha hall. This is the Ąatti. Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. The sa´gha appoints, and etc. Thus I understand."'

3. At that time there were in a certain residence [or district] two Uposatha halls fixed upon. The Bhikkhus assembled in both places, because [some of them] thought, `The Uposatha will be held here;' [and some], `It will be held there.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, fix upon two Uposatha halls in one district. He who does so, commits a dukka˝a offence. I ordain, O Bhikkhus, the abolishing of one of them [14], and the holding of Uposatha [only] in one place.

4. `And you ought to abolish it, O Bhikkhus, in this way: let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the sa´gha is ready, the sa´gha may abolish the Uposatha hall called N.N. This is the Ąatti. Let the sa´gha, and etc. Thus I understand."'
 

 

Section Nine

1. At that time in a certain district too small an Uposatha hall had been appointed. On the day of Uposatha a great assembly of Bhikkhus met together. The Bhikkhus heard the PÓtimokkha sitting outside the site fixed upon. Now those Bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has promulgated the precept that Uposatha is to be held after an Uposatha hall has been fixed upon, and we have heard the PÓtimokkha sitting outside the site fixed upon. Have we therefore [duly] held Uposatha or have we not held it?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Whether [a Bhikkhu] be seated inside or outside the site fixed upon, provided he hears the PÓtimokkha, Uposatha has been duly held by him.

2. `Therefore, O Bhikkhus, let the sa´gha determine as large, an Uposatha-pamukha [15] as it desires. And it ought to be determined, O Bhikkhus, in this way: first the landmarks to be proclaimed, the landmarks having been proclaimed, let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the sa´gha is ready, let the sa´gha, as the landmarks have been proclaimed all around, determine an Uposathapamukha by these landmarks. This is the Ąatti. Let the sa´gha, and etc. Thus I understand."'
 

Section Ten

At that time in a certain district on the day of Uposatha the young Bhikkhus, who had assembled first, thought: the theras do not come yet and went away. The Uposatha service was held after the right time.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that on the Uposatha day the theras ought to assemble first.'
 

Section Eleven

At that time there were at RÓjagaha several residences [of Bhikkhus] within the same boundary. Now the Bhikkhus quarreled: [some of them said], `The Uposatha shall be held in our residence;' [others said], `It shall be held in our residence.' They told this thin to the Blessed One.

`There are, O Bhikkhus, several [Bhikkhu] residences within the same boundary; now the Bhikkhus quarrel : [some of them say], "The Uposatha shall be held in our residence;" [others say], "It shall be held in our residence." Let those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, assemble in one place all of them and hold Uposatha there, or let them assemble where the senior Bhikkhu dwells and hold Uposatha there. But in no case is Uposatha to be held by an incomplete congregation. He who holds it [in that way], commits a dukka˝a offence.'
 

Section Twelve

1. At that time the Reverend MahÓ Kassapa, when going to the Uposatha from Andhakavinda to RÓjagaha, and crossing a river on his way, was nearly [16] being carried away [by the river][17]; and his robes got wet. The Bhikkhus said to the Reverend MahÓ Kassapa: `How have your robes got wet friend?' [He replied]: `As I was going, friends, to the Uposatha from Andhakavinda to RÓjagaha, and crossing a river on my way, I was nearly being carried away [by the river]; thus my robes have become wet.'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let the sa´gha, O Bhikkhus, confer on the boundary which it has determined for common residence and for communion of Uposatha, the character of ticivarena avippavÓsa [18].

2. `And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to confer on it this character in this way: let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the sa´gha is ready, let the sa´gha confer on the boundary, which the sa´gha has determined for common residence and for communion of Uposatha, the character of ticivarena avippavÓsa. This is the Ąatti. Let the sa´gha [and etc., as above]. Thus I understand."'

3. At that time the Bhikkhus, considering that the Blessed One had ordained the conferring of the character of ticivarena avippavÓsa [on the boundaries], deposited their robes in a house. Those robes were lost, burnt or eaten by rats; the Bhikkhus were badly dressed and had coarse robes. [Other] Bhikkhus said: `How comes it that you are badly dressed, friends, and that you have coarse robes?' [They replied]: `Considering, friends, that the Blessed One had ordained the conferring [on the boundaries] of the character of ticivarena avippavÓsa, we deposited our robes in a house; the robes have been lost, burnt, or eaten by rats; therefore we are badly dressed and have coarse robes.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let [19] the sa´gha, O Bhikkhus, confer on the boundary which it has determined for common residence and for communion of Uposatha, the character of ticivarena avippavÓsa, excepting villages and the neighborhood of villages [20].

4. `And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to confer on it this character in this way, and etc. [21]

5. `Let him who determines a boundary, O Bhikkhus, first determine the boundary for common residence and for communion of Uposatha, and afterwards decree about the ticivarena avippavÓsa. Let him who abolishes a boundary, O Bhikkhus, first abolish the decree about the ticivarena avippavÓsa, and afterwards abolish the boundary for common residence and for communion of Uposatha.

`And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to abolish the ticivarena avippavÓsa in this way: let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the sa´gha is ready, let the sa´gha abolish the ticivarena avippavÓsa, which the sa´gha has decreed. This is the Ąatti. Let the sa´gha, and etc."

6. `And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to abolish the boundary in this way: let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the sa´gha is ready, let the sa´gha abolish the boundary for common residence and for communion of Uposatha, which it has determined. This is the Ąatti. Let the sa´gha, and etc."

7. `If there is no boundary determined nor fixed, O Bhikkhus, the village boundary of that village, or the Niigata boundary of that Niigata [market town] near which village or Niigata [a Bhikkhu] dwells, is to be considered as boundary for common residence and for the communion of Uposatha. If [he lives], O Bhikkhus, in a forest where no villages are, community of residence and Uposatha extends to a distance of seven abbhantaras [22] all around. A river, O Bhikkhus, cannot be a boundary, a sea cannot be a boundary, a natural lake cannot be a boundary. In a river, O Bhikkhus, or in a sea, or in a natural lake, community of residence and Uposatha extends as far as an average man can sprit water all around.'

Section Thirteen

1. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus made one boundary overlap another one [which had been determined before by other Bhikkhus].

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`The act of those who have determined their boundary first is lawful, unobjectionable, and valid. The act of those who have determined their boundary afterwards is unlawful, objectionable, and invalid. Let no one, O Bhikkhus; make one boundary overlap another one. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence.'

2. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus made one boundary encompass another one [which had been determined before by other Bhikkhus].

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`The act of those, and etc. [see sect.1]. Let no one, O Bhikkhus; make one boundary encompass another one. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence. I prescribe O Bhikkhus, that he who determines a boundary, is to determine it so as to leave an interstice [23] between the boundaries.'

Section Fourteen

1. Now the Bhikkhus thought: `How many Uposatha [days] are there?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`There are the following two Uposatha [days], O Bhikkhus. The fourteenth and the fifteenth [of the half month]; these are the two Uposatha [days], O Bhikkhus.'

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: `How many Uposatha services are there?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`There are the following four Uposatha services, O Bhikkhus: the Uposatha service which is held unlawfully [by an] incomplete [congregation] [24], the Uposatha service, which is held unlawfully [by a] complete [congregation], the Uposatha service which is held lawfully [by an] incomplete [congregation], the Uposatha service which is held lawfully [by a] complete [congregation].

3. `Now, O Bhikkhus, the Uposatha service which is held unlawfully [by an] incomplete [congregation], such an Uposatha service, O Bhikkhus, ought not to be held, nor is such an Uposatha service allowed by me. Now, O Bhikkhus, the Uposatha service which is held unlawfully [by a] complete [congregation], such an Uposatha service, O Bhikkhus, ought not to be held, nor is such an Uposatha service allowed by me. Now, O Bhikkhus, the Uposatha service which is held lawfully [by an] incomplete [congregation], such an Uposatha service, O Bhikkhus, ought not to be held, nor is such an Uposatha service allowed by me. Now, O Bhikkhus, the Uposatha service which is held lawfully [by a] complete [congregation], such an Uposatha service, O Bhikkhus, ought to be held, and such an Uposatha service is allowed by me. Therefore, O Bhikkhus, you ought to train yourselves thus: "The Uposatha service which is held lawfully [by a] complete [congregation], such an Uposatha service will we hold."'
 

Section Fifteen

1. Now the Bhikkhus thought: `How many ways are there of reciting the PÓtimokkha?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`There are the following five ways of reciting the PÓtimokkha: the introduction [25] having been recited, as to the rest, it may be proclaimed: "Such and such rules are known [to the fraternity] [26]." This is the first way of reciting the PÓtimokkha. The introduction having been recited, the four pÓrÓjika dhammÓ having been recited, as to the rest, it may be proclaimed: "Such and such rules are known [to the fraternity]." This is the second way of reciting the PÓtimokkha. The introduction having been recited, the four pÓrÓjika dhammÓ having been recited, the thirteen sa´ghÓdisesÓ dhammÓ having been recitedůThe introduction having been recited, the four pÓrÓjika dhammÓ having been recited, the thirteen sa´ghÓdisesÓ dhammÓ having been recited, the two aniyatÓ dhammÓ having been recited, as to the rest, it may be proclaimed: "Such and such rules are known [to the fraternity]." This is the fourth way of reciting the PÓtimokkha. The fifth way is [to recite it] in its full extent. These, O Bhikkhus, are the five ways of reciting the PÓtimokkha.'

2. At that time the Bhikkhus, considering that the Blessed One had allowed to recite the PÓtimokkha abridged, always recited the PÓtimokkha abridged.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to recite the PÓtimokkha abridged. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence.'

3. At that time a certain residence [of Bhikkhus] in the Kosala country was menaced on the day of Uposatha by savage people. The Bhikkhus were not able to recite the PÓtimokkha in its full extent.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O Bhikkhus, in the case of danger to recite the PÓtimokkha abridged.'

4. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus recited the PÓtimokkha abridged also when there was no danger.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`You ought not to recite the PÓtimokkha abridged, O Bhikkhus, if there is no danger. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence. I allow you, O Bhikkhus, in the case of danger only to recite the PÓtimokkha abridged. The cases of danger are the following: danger from kings, from robbers, from fire, from water, from human beings, from non-human beings, from beasts of prey, from creeping things, danger of life, danger against chastity. I ordain, O Bhikkhus, the recitation in such cases of danger of the PÓtimokkha abridged; if there is no danger, in its full extent.'

5. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus preached the Dhamma before the sa´gha without being called upon [by the thera].

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, preach the Dhamma before the sa´gha without being called upon. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the thera is either to preach the Dhamma himself or to call upon another [Bhikkhu to do so].'

6. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus put questions about the Vinaya before the sa´gha without being appointed thereto.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, put questions about the Vinaya before the sa´gha without being appointed thereto. He who so questions, commits a dukka˝a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that an appointed [Bhikkhu] is to put questions about the Vinaya before the sa´gha. And [this Bhikkhu] is to be. Appointed, O Bhikkhus, in this way: one may either appoint himself, or one may appoint another person.

7. `And how is [a Bhikkhu] to appoint himself? Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. If the sa´gha is ready, I will question N.N. about the Vinaya." Thus one may appoint himself. And how is [a Bhikkhu] to appoint another person? Let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, and etc. If the sa´gha is ready, let N.N. question N.N. about the Vinaya."

Thus one may appoint another person.'

8. At that time appointed, clever Bhikkhus put questions about the Vinaya before the sa´gha. The chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus conceived anger [towards those Bhikkhus], conceived discontent, and threatened them with blows.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe you, O Bhikkhus, that even he who has been appointed shall [not] put questions about the Vinaya before the sa´gha [without] having looked at the assembly and weighed [with the mind each] person [present].'

9, 10. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus answered questions about the Vinaya before the sa´gha without being appointed thereto.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, answer questions about the Vinaya before the sa´gha without being appointed thereto. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that questions about the Vinaya are to be answered before the sa´gha [only] by an appointed [Bhikkhu]. And [this Bhikkhu] is to be appointed [27], and etc.'

11. At that time appointed, clever Bhikkhus answered questions about the Vinaya before the sa´gha. The chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus [28], and etc.
 

Section Sixteen

1. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus reproved for an offence a Bhikkhu who had not given them leave.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`No Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, who has not given leave, may be reproved for an offence. He who reproves, [such a Bhikkhu], commits a dukka˝a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you reprove [Bhikkhus] for an offence [only] after having asked for leave [by saying], "Give me leave, Reverend brother, I wish to speak to you."'

2. At that time clever Bhikkhus reproved the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus for an offence after having asked for leave. The chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus conceived anger [towards those Bhikkhus], conceived discontent, and threatened them with blows.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you are [not] to reprove [a Bhikkhu] for an offence, even if he has given leave, [without] having weighed [with your mind] the person [concerned].'

3. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus, who thought: `Otherwise clever Bhikkhus might ask us for leave [and reprove us for an offence],' themselves asked beforehand pure Bhikkhus who had committed no offence, for leave without object and reason.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no pure Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, who have committed no offence, be asked for leave without object and reason. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you are [not] to ask for leave [without] having weighed [with your mind] the person [concerned].'

4. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus performed an unlawful official act before the sa´gha.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, perform unlawful acts before the sa´gha. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence.'

They performed an unlawful act nevertheless.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you should protest, if an unlawful act is being performed.'

5. At that time clever Bhikkhus protested at an unlawful act being performed by the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus. The chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus conceived anger, conceived discontent, and threatened [those Bhikkhus] with blows.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

` I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to express your opinion only [instead of protesting formally].'

They expressed their opinion in the presence of the said [Bhikkhus]. The chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus conceived anger, conceived discontent, and threatened [them] with blows.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that four or five persons may protest, that two or three may express their opinion, and that one person may determine [in his mind]: "I do not think this right."'

6. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus, when reciting the PÓtimokkha before the sa´gha, intentionally recited it so that it could not be heard.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let not him who is to recite the PÓtimokkha, O Bhikkhus, intentionally recite it so that it cannot be heard. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence.'

7. At that time the Reverend UdÓyi, who had a crow's voice, had the duty to recite the PÓtimokkha before the sa´gha. Now the Reverend UdÓyi thought: `It has been prescribed by the Blessed One that he who is to recite the PÓtimokkha, ought to recite it so that it may be heard; but I have a crow's voice. Well, how am I to act?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

` I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that he who is to recite the PÓtimokkha may endeavor to make it audible. If he endeavors [to do so], he is free from offence.'

8. At that time Devadatta recited the PÓtimokkha before an assembly in which laymen were present.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the PÓtimokkha before an assembly in which laymen are present. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence.'

9. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus recited the PÓtimokkha before the sa´gha without being called upon [by the thera].

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the PÓtimokkha before the sa´gha without being called upon. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence. I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the thera is master of the PÓtimokkha [29].'

End of the BhÓnavÓra of the AĄĄatitthiyas[30].

 

Section Seventeen

1. Then the Blessed One, after having dwelt near RÓjagaha as long as He thought fit, went forth on His pilgrimage to KodanÓvatthu. Going from place to place on His pilgrimage, He came to KodanÓvatthu. At that time there dwelt in a certain residence many Bhikkhus, the eldest of whom was an ignorant, unlearned person, he neither knew Uposatha, nor the Uposatha service, nor the PÓtimokkha, nor the recital of the PÓtimokkha.

2. Now those Bhikkhus thought: `It has been prescribed by the Blessed One that the eldest Bhikkhu is master of the PÓtimokkha, and here the eldest of us is an ignorant, unlearned person : he neither knows Uposatha nor the recital of the PÓtimokkha. Well, how are we to act?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that [in such a case] that Bhikkhu who is [most] learned and competent, is to be made master of the PÓtimokkha.'

3. At that time there dwelt in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha many ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus: they neither knew Uposatha . . . nor the recital of the PÓtimokkha. They called upon the thera: `May it please the thera, Reverend Sir, to recite the PÓtimokkha.' He replied: `I am not competent to do so.' They called upon the next eldest, and etc. He also replied, and etc. They called upon the third eldest, and etc. In this manner they called upon [all Bhikkhus] down to the youngest one: `May it please the Reverend brother to recite the PÓtimokkha.' He also replied: `I am not competent, Venerable Sirs, to do so'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

4, 5. `When, O Bhikkhus, in a certain residence, and etc. [31]; In that case, O Bhikkhus, these Bhikkhus are instantly to send one Bhikkhu to the neighboring residence [of Bhikkhus]: "Go, friend, and come back when you have learnt the PÓtimokkha abridged or in its full extent."'

6. Now the Bhikkhus thought: `By whom is [this Bhikkhu] to be sent?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the thera is to give order to a young Bhikkhu.'

The young Bhikkhus, having received that order from the thera, did not go.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`Let no one who has been ordered by the thera forbear to go, unless he be sick. He who does not go, commits a dukka˝a offence.'
 

Section Eighteen

1. Then the Blessed One, after having dwelt at KodanÓvatthu as long as He thought fit, went back again to RÓjagaha. At that time the people asked the Bhikkhus who went about for alms: `What day of the half month is this, Reverend Sirs?' The Bhikkhus replied: `We do not know, friends.' The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `Those Sakyaputtiya sama§as do not even know how to count [the days of] the half month; what good things else will they know?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you learn how to count [the days of] the half month.'

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: `Who ought to learn to count [the days of] the half month?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you learn all of you to count [the days of] the half month.'

3. At that time the people asked the Bhikkhus who went about for alms: `How many Bhikkhus are there, Reverend Sirs?' The Bhikkhus replied: `We do not know, friends.' The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `Those Sakyaputtiya sama§as do not even know each other; what good things else will they know?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you count the Bhikkhus.'

4. Now the Bhikkhus thought: `At what time ought we to count the Bhikkhus?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you count [the Bhikkhus] on the day of Uposatha, either by way of [counting the single] troops [of which the assembly is composed][32], or that you take [each of you] a ticket [and count those tickets].'
 

Section Nineteen

At that time Bhikkhus who did not know that it was Uposatha day, went for alms to a distant village.

They came back when the PÓtimokkha was being recited, or when it just had been recited.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus that you proclaim: "Today is Uposatha."'

Now the Bhikkhus thought: `Who is to proclaim so?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the thera is to proclaim [the day of Uposatha] in due time.'

At that time a certain thera did not think of it in due time.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to proclaim it also at meal time.'

[The thera] did not think of it at mealtime either.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I allow, O Bhikkhus, to proclaim it whenever [the thera] thinks of it.'
 

Section Twenty

1. At that time the Uposatha hall in a certain residence was full of sweepings. The Bhikkhus who arrived there were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `How can the Bhikkhus neglect to sweep the Uposatha hall?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you sweep the Uposatha hall.'

2. Now the Bhikkhus thought: `Well, who is to sweep the Uposatha hall?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that the thera is to order a young Bhikkhu [to sweep the Uposatha hall].

The young Bhikkhus, having received that order from the thera, did not sweep it.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`He who has been ordered by the thera, ought not to forbear to sweep it, unless he be sick. He who does not sweep it, commits a dukka˝a offence.'

3. At that time there were no seats prepared in the Uposatha hall. The Bhikkhus sat down on the ground. Their bodies and their robes became full of dust.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you, prepare seats in the Uposatha hall.'

Now the Bhikkhus thought, and etc. [see sect.2].

`He who does not prepare [seats], commits a dukka˝a offence.'

4. At that time there was no lamp in the Uposatha hall. The Bhikkhus in the darkness trod upon [each other's] bodies and robes.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you light a lamp in the Uposatha hall.'

Now the Bhikkhus thought, and etc. [see sect.2].

`He who does not light [the lamp], commits a dukka˝a offence.'

5. At that time the resident Bhikkhus in a certain residence did not provide drink [i.e. water], nor did they provide food. The incoming Bhikkhus were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: `How can the resident Bhikkhus neglect to provide for drink and to provide for food?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that you provide drink and food.'

Now the Bhikkhus thought, and etc. [see sect.2].

`He who does not provide for it, commits a dukka˝a offence.'
 

Section Twenty-One

1. At that time many ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus who traveled to the [four] quarters [of the world] did not ask leave of their Ócariyas and upajjhÓyas [when going away].

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, there are many ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus who travel to the [four] quarters without asking leave of their Ócariyas and upajjhÓyas; such Bhikkhus ought to be asked by their Ócariyas and upajjhÓyas: "Where will you go? With whom will you go?" If those ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus name other ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus, their Ócariyas and upajjhÓyas ought not to allow them [to go]; if they allow them, they commit a dukka˝a offence. If those ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus go without the permission of their Ócariyas and upajjhÓyas, they commit a dukka˝a offence.

2. `In case, O Bhikkhus, there dwell in a certain residence many ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus who neither know Uposatha, nor the Uposatha service, nor the PÓtimokkha, nor the recital of the PÓtimokkha: now there arrives [at that place] another Bhikkhu who is erudite, who has studied the Ógamas [i.e. the collections of Suttas], who knows the Dhamma, the Vinaya, the mÓtika [33], who is wise, learned, intelligent, modest, conscientious [34], anxious for training; let those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, kindly receive that Bhikkhu, let them show attention to him, exchange [friendly] words with him, provide him with powder, clay [35], a tooth-cleanser, and water to rinse his mouth with. If they do not receive him kindly, or show no attention to him, or do not exchange [friendly] words with him, or do not provide him with powder, clay, a tooth-cleanser, and water to rinse his mouth with, they commit a dukka˝a offence.

3. `In case, O Bhikkhus, there dwell in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha many ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus who neither know Uposatha . . . nor the recital of the PÓtimokkha; let those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, instantly send one Bhikkhu to the neighboring residence [of Bhikkhus, saying], "Go, friend, and come back when you have learnt the PÓtimokkha abridged or in its full extent." If they succeed in this way, well and good. If they do not succeed, those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, ought all to go to a residence where they [the Bhikkhus there] know Uposatha or the Uposatha service or the PÓtimokkha or the recital of the PÓtimokkha. If they do not go, they commit a dukka˝a offence.

4. `In case, O Bhikkhus, many ignorant, unlearned Bhikkhus keep vassa [36] in a certain residence who neither know, and etc. [37] If they succeed in this way, well and good. If they do not succeed, they ought to send away one Bhikkhu for seven days time [saying], "Go, friend, and come back when you have learnt the PÓtimokkha abridged or in its full extent." If they succeed in this way, well and good. If they do not succeed, those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, ought not to keep vassa in that residence. If they do, they commit a dukka˝a offence.'

Section Twenty-Two

1. Then the Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus: `Assemble, O Bhikkhus, the sa´gha will hold Uposatha.' When He had spoken thus, a certain Bhikkhu said to the Blessed One: `There is a sick Bhikkhu, Lord, who is not present.'

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that a sick Bhikkhu is to declare [lit. to give] his pÓrisuddhi [38]. And let it be declared, O Bhikkhus, in this way: let that sick Bhikkhu go to one Bhikkhu, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: "I declare my pÓrisuddhi, take my pÓrisuddhi, proclaim my pÓrisuddhi [before the fraternity]." Whether he expresses this by gesture [lit. by his body], or by word, or by gesture and word, the pÓrisuddhi has been declared. If he does not express this by gesture, and etc. the pÓrisuddhi has not been declared.

2. `If [the sick Bhikkhu] succeeds in doing so, well and good. If he does not succeed, let them take that sick Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, on his bed or his chair to the assembly, and [then] let them hold Uposatha. If, O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhus who are nursing the sick, think: "If we move this sick person from his place, the sickness will increase, or he will die," let them not move the sick, O Bhikkhus, from his place; let the sa´gha go there and hold there Uposatha. But in no case are they to hold Uposatha with an incomplete congregation. If [a Bhikkhu] does so, he commits a dukka˝a offence.

3. `If he who has been charged with the pÓrisuddhi, O Bhikkhus, leaves the place at once, after the pÓrisuddhi has been entrusted [to him], the pÓrisuddhi ought to be declared to another. If he who has been charged with the pÓrisuddhi, O Bhikkhus, after the pÓrisuddhi has been entrusted to him, returns to the world [39] at once [40] or dies; or admits that he is a sÓmanera; or that he has abandoned the precepts [41]; or that he has become guilty of an extreme offence [42]; or that he is mad; or that his mind is unhinged; or that he suffers [bodily] pain; or that expulsion has been pronounced against him for his refusal to see an offence [committed by himself]; or to atone for such an offence; or to renounce a false Doctrine; or that he is a eunuch; or that he has furtively attached himself [to the sa´gha]; or that he is gone over to the titthiyas; or that he is an animal [43]; or that he is guilty of matricide; or that he is guilt of parricide; or that he has murdered an arahat; or that he has violated a Bhikkhuni; or that he has caused a schism among the sa´gha; or that he has shed [a Buddha's] blood; or that he is a hermaphrodite : [in these cases] the pÓrisuddhi ought to be entrusted to another one.

4. `If he who has been charged with the pÓrisuddhi, O Bhikkhus, after the pÓrisuddhi has been entrusted to him, and whilst he is on his way [to the assembly], leaves the place, or returns to the world, or dies, or admits that he is a sÓmanera [44], and etc. or admits that he is a hermaphrodite, the pÓrisuddhi has not been conveyed [to the sa´gha]. If he who has been charged with the pÓrisuddhi, O Bhikkhus, after the pÓrisuddhi has been entrusted to him, having arrived with the fraternity, leaves the place, or dies, and etc. the pÓrisuddhi has been conveyed. If he who has been charged with the pÓrisuddhi, O Bhikkhus, after the pÓrisuddhi has been entrusted to him, Though he reaches the assembly, does not proclaim [the pÓrisuddhi he is charged with] because he falls asleep, or by carelessness, or because he attains [meditation], the pÓrisuddhi has been conveyed, and there is no offence on the part of him who has been charged with the pÓrisuddhi. If he who has been charged, and etc. intentionally omits to proclaim [the pÓrisuddhi], the pÓrisuddhi has been conveyed, but he who has been charged with the pÓrisuddhi is guilty of a dukka˝a offence.'

Section Twenty-Three

Then the Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus: `Assemble, O Bhikkhus, the sa´gha will perform an [official] act.' When He had spoken thus, a certain Bhikkhu said to the Blessed One: `There is a sick Bhikkhu, Lord, who is not present.'

` I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that a sick Bhikkhu is to declare [lit. to give] his consent [to the act to be performed], and etc. [45] I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that on the day of Uposatha he who declares his pÓrisuddhi is to declare his consent [to official acts to be performed eventually] also, for [both declarations] are required for the sa´gha [and for the validity of its acts].

Section Twenty-Four

1. At that time relations of a certain Bhikkhu seized him on the day of Uposatha.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, a certain Bhikkhu is seized on the day of Uposatha by relations of his, let the Bhikkhus say to those relations: "Pray, friends, let this Bhikkhu free for a moment until this Bhikkhu has held Uposatha."

2. `If they succeed in this way, well and good. If they do not succeed, let the Bhikkhus say to those relations: "Pray, friends, stand apart for a moment, until this Bhikkhu has declared his pÓrisuddhi." If they succeed, well and good. If they do not succeed, let the Bhikkhus say to those relations: "Pray, friends, take this Bhikkhu for a moment outside the boundary, until the sa´gha has held Uposatha." If they succeed, well and good. If they do not succeed, in no case is Uposatha to be held by an assembly that is incomplete. Should it be so held, [each Bhikkhu in the assembly] is guilty of a dukka˝a offence.

3. `In case, O Bhikkhus, a certain Bhikkhu is seized on the day of Uposatha by kings, by robbers, by rascals, by hostile Bhikkhus, and etc. [46]'
 

Section Twenty-Five

1. Then the Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus: `Assemble, O Bhikkhus, the sa´gha has duties [official acts] to perform.' When He had spoken thus, a certain Bhikkhu said to the Blessed One: `There is a mad Bhikkhu, Lord, called Gagga, who is not present.' `There are, O Bhikkhus, two sorts of madmen: there is one mad Bhikkhu who now remembers the Uposatha, now does not remember it, who now remembers official acts [of the order], now does not remember them, [and] there is [another mad Bhikkhu] who does not remember them; one who now goes to Uposatha, now does not go, who now goes to official acts, now does not go, [and another] who does not go.

2. `Now, O Bhikkhus, that madman that now remembers, and etc., that now goes to, and etc., to such a madman I prescribe that you grant ummattakasammuti [i.e. the madman's leave].

3. `And you ought, O Bhikkhus, to grant it in this way: let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. Gagga, a mad Bhikkhu, now remembers the Uposatha, now does not remember, and etc., now goes to, and etc.; if the sa´gha is ready, let the sa´gha grant ummattakasammuti to the mad Bhikkhu Gagga: let the Bhikkhu Gagga remember or not remember Uposatha, remember or not remember official acts [of the order], let him go to Uposatha or not go, let him go to official acts or not go: [in every case] it may be free to the sa´gha to hold Uposatha and to perform official acts with Gagga as well as without Gagga. This is the Ąatti.

4. `"Let the sa´gha, and etc. Gagga, a mad Bhikkhu, and etc.; the sa´gha grants, and etc. Thus I understand."'

Section Twenty-Six

1. At that time four Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain residence [of Bhikkhus] on the day of Uposatha. Now these Bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed the holding of Uposatha, and we are [only] four persons [47]. Well, how are we to hold Uposatha?'.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that four [Bhikkhus] may recite the PÓtimokkha.'

2. At that time three Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain residence [of Bhikkhus] at the day of Uposatha. Now these Bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed to four [Bhikkhus] the reciting of the PÓtimokkha, and we are [only] three persons,' and etc.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that three Bhikkhus may hold pÓrisuddhi-Uposatha [48].

3. `And it ought to be held in this way: let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following eat before those Bhikkhus: "Let the Reverend brethren hear me. Today is Uposatha, the fifteenth [day of the half month]. If the Reverend brethren are ready, let us hold pÓrisuddhi-Uposatha with each other." Let the senior Bhikkhu adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say to those Bhikkhus: "I am pure, friends, understand that I am pure, and etc. [49] "

4. `Let [each] younger Bhikkhu [in his turn] adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say to those Bhikkhus: "I am pure Reverend Sirs."'

5. At that time two Bhikkhus dwelt in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha. Now these Bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed to four [Bhikkhus] the reciting of the PÓtimokkha, to three [Bhikkhus] the holding of pÓrisuddhi-Uposatha, and we are [only] two persons,' and etc.

`I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, that two persons may hold pÓrisuddhi-Uposatha.'

6, 7. `And it ought to be held in this way: let the senior Bhikkhu, and etc. [50]'

8. At that time there dwelt a single Bhikkhu in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha. Now this Bhikkhu thought, and etc.

9. `In case there dwell, O Bhikkhus, in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha a single Bhikkhu; let that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, sweep the place which the Bhikkhus used to frequent, the refectory, or hall, or place at the foot of a tree; let him [then] provide water and food, prepare seats, put a lamp there, and sit down. If other Bhikkhus come, let him hold Uposatha with them; if they do not come, let him fix his mind upon the thought: "Today is my Uposatha." If he does not fix his mind upon this thought, he commits a dukka˝a offence.

10. `Now, O Bhikkhus, where four Bhikkhus dwell [together], they must not convey the pÓrisuddhi [51] of one [to their assembly], and recite, the PÓtimokkha by three. If they do, they commit a dukka˝a offence.

`Now, O Bhikkhus, where three Bhikkhus dwell [together], they must not convey the pÓrisuddhi of one [to their assembly], and hold pÓrisuddhi Uposatha by two. If they do, they commit a dukka˝a offence.

`Now, O Bhikkhus, where two Bhikkhus dwell, one of them must not convey the pÓrisuddhi of the other one, and fix [only] his thoughts [upon the Uposatha]. If he does, he commits a dukka˝a offence.'

Section Twenty-Seven

1. At that time a certain Bhikkhu was guilty of an offence on the day of Uposatha. Now this Bhikkhu thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed: "Uposatha is not to be held by a Bhikkhu who is guilty of an offence [52]." Now I am guilty of an offence. What am I to do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, a certain Bhikkhu be guilty of an offence on the day of Uposatha; let that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, go to one Bhikkhu, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: "I have committed, friend, such and such an offence; I confess that offence." Let the other say: "Do you see it?" "Yes, I see it." "Refrain from it in future."

2 `In case, O Bhikkhus, there be a Bhikkhu on the day of Uposatha who feels doubt with regard to an offence; let this Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, go to one Bhikkhu, and etc. [sect.1], and say: "I feel doubt, friend, with regard to such and such an offence. When I shall feel no doubt, then I will atone for that offence." Having spoken thus let him hold Uposatha and hear the PÓtimokkha. But in no case must there be any hindrance to holding Uposatha from such a cause.'

3. At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus confessed in common an offence [shared by them all].

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to confess an offence in common. He who does so, commits a dukka˝a offence.'

At that time the chabbaggiyÓ Bhikkhus accepted the common confession of an offence [shared by several Bhikkhus].

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to accept the common confession of an offence. He who does so, commits a dukka˝a offence.'

4. At that time a certain Bhikkhu remembered an offence, while the PÓtimokkha was being recited. Now this Bhikkhu thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed: "Uposatha is not to be held by [a Bhikkhu] who is guilty of an offence." Now I am guilty of an offence. What am I to do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, there be a Bhikkhu who remembers an offence, while the PÓtimokkha is being recited; let this Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, say to his neighbor Bhikkhu: "I have committed such and such an offence, friend; when I have arisen from this assembly], I will atone for that offence." Having spoken thus, and etc. [sect.2].

5. `In case, O Bhikkhus, there be a Bhikkhu who feels doubt with regard to an offence, while the PÓtimokkha is being recited, and etc. [sects. 2, 4].'

6. At that time the whole sa´gha in a certain residence was guilty of a common offence on the day of Uposatha. Now these Bhikkhus thought: `The Blessed One has prescribed that offences [shared by many Bhikkhus] are not to be confessed in common, and that the common confession of such offences is not to be accepted. Now this whole sa´gha is guilty of a common offence. What are we to do?'

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, the whole sa´gha in a certain residence is guilty of a common offence on the day of Uposatha ; let those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, send instantly one Bhikkhu to the neighboring residence of Bhikkhus [saying], "Go, friend, and come back when you have atoned for that offence [for yourself]; we will [then] atone for the offence before you."

7. `If they succeed in this way, well and good. If they do not succeed, let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. This whole sa´gha is guilty of a common offence. When it shall see another pure guiltless Bhikkhu, it will atone for the offence before him." [One of the Bhikkhus] having spoken thus let them hold Uposatha and recite the PÓtimokkha. But in no case must there be any hindrance to holding Uposatha from such a cause.

8. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the whole sa´gha in a certain residence feels doubt with regard to a common offence on the day of Uposatha; [in this case] let a learned, competent Bhikkhu proclaim the following Ąatti before the sa´gha: "Let the sa´gha, Reverend Sirs, hear me. This whole sa´gha feels doubt with regard to a common offence. When it will feel no doubt, it will atone for that offence." [One of the Bhikkhus] having spoken thus, and etc.

9. `In case, O Bhikkhus, in a certain residence the sa´gha that has entered [there] upon vassa is guilty of a common offence. Those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, are instantly, and etc. [sects. 6, 7]. If they do not succeed, let them send away one Bhikkhu for seven days' time: "Go, friend, and come back when you have atoned for that offence [for yourself]; we will [then] atone for the offence before you."'

10. At that time the whole sa´gha in a certain residence was guilty of a common offence, and did not know the name nor the class to which that offence belonged. Now there arrived [at that place] another Bhikkhu, and etc. [see chap.21.2], anxious for training. To that Bhikkhu one of the Bhikkhus went, and having gone to him, he said to him: `He who does such and such a thing, friend, what sort of offence does he commit?'

11. He replied: `He who does such and such a thing, friend, commits such and such an offence. If you have committed such an offence, friend, atone, for that offence.' The other replied: `Not I myself alone, friend, am guilty of that offence; this whole sa´gha is guilty of that offence'. He said: `What is it to you, friend, whether another is guilty or guiltless? Come, friend, atone for your own offence.'

12. Now this Bhikkhu, after having atoned for that offence by the advice of that Bhikkhu, went to those Bhikkhus [to his brethren who shared in the same offence]; having gone to them, he said to those Bhikkhus: `He who does such and such a thing, friends, commits such and such an offence. As you have committed such an offence, friends, atone for that offence.' Now those Bhikkhus refused to atone for that offence by that Bhikkhus advice.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

13, 14. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the whole sa´gha in a certain residence is guilty of a common offence, [and etc. 10,11]

15. `If this Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, after having atoned for that offence by the advice of that Bhikkhu, goes to those Bhikkhus, and having gone to them, says to those Bhikkhus: "He who does, and etc.," and if those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, atone for that, offence by that Bhikkhus advice, well and good; if they do not atone for it, that Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, need not say anything [further] to those Bhikkhus, if he does not like.'

End of the BhÓnavÓra on KodanÓvatthu.

Section Twenty-Eight

1. At that time there assembled in a certain residence [of Bhikkhus] at the day of Uposatha a number of resident Bhikkhus, four or more. They did not know that there were other resident Bhikkhus absent. Intending to act according to Dhamma and Vinaya, thinking themselves to be complete while [really] incomplete, they held Uposatha and recited the PÓtimokkha. While they were reciting the PÓtimokkha, other resident Bhikkhus, a greater number [than the first ones], arrived.

They told this thing to the Blessed One.

2. `In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble in a certain residence at the day of Uposatha, and etc. [sect.1]; while they are reciting the PÓtimokkha, other resident Bhikkhus, a greater number, arrive; let those Bhikkhus, O Bhikkhus, recite the PÓtimokkha again; they who have recited it, are free from guilt.

3. `In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, and etc.; While they are reciting the PÓtimokkha, other resident Bhikkhus, exactly the same number; [as the first ones], arrive; in that case [the part of the PÓtimokkha] that has been recited, has been correctly recited; let those [who have arrived late], hear the rest; they who have recited it, are free from guilt.

`In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, and etc.; While they are reciting the PÓtimokkha, other resident Bhikkhus, a smaller number, arrive, and etc. [53]

4. `In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, and etc.; When they have just finished the recital of the PÓtimokkha, other resident Bhikkhus, and etc. [54]

5. `In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, and etc.; When they have just finished the recital of the PÓtimokkha, and the assembly has not yet risen, other resident Bhikkhus, and etc.'

6. `In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, and etc.; When they have just finished the recital of the PÓtimokkha, and a part of the assembly has risen, and etc.'

7. `In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, and etc.; When they have just finished the recital of the PÓtimokkha, and the whole assembly has risen, and etc. [55]'
 

End of the Fifteen Cases in Which There Is No Offence.

 

Section Twenty-Nine

`In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha a number of resident Bhikkhus, four or more; they know that there are other resident Bhikkhus absent; intending to act according to Dhamma and Vinaya, incomplete, conscious of their incompleteness, they hold Uposatha and recite the PÓtimokkha, and etc. [56]'
 

End of the Fifteen Cases of the Incompletely

Assembled Bhikkhus Who Are Conscious Of Their Incompleteness.

 

Section Thirty

`In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, and etc.; they know that there are other resident Bhikkhus absent. Feeling doubt as to whether they are competent to hold Uposatha or not competent, they hold Uposatha and recite the PÓtimokkha, and etc.'
 

End of the Fifteen Cases of the Bhikkhus Who Feel Doubt.

 

Section Thirty-One

`In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, and etc.; They know that there are other resident Bhikkhus absent [thinking]: "We are competent to hold Uposatha, we are not incompetent," they abandon themselves to misbehavior, hold Uposatha, and recite the PÓtimokkha, and etc. [57]'
 

End of the Fifteen Cases of the Bhikkhus Abandoning Themselves to Misbehavior.

 

Section Thirty-Two

`In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble, and etc.; they know that there are other resident Bhikkhus absent. They perish and become ruined [58], saying, "What are those people to us?" And risking a schism [among the fraternity], they hold Uposatha and recite the PÓtimokkha, and etc. [59]'
 

End of the Fifteen Cases of the Bhikkhus Risking a Schism.

End of the Seventy-Five [60] Cases.

 

Section Thirty-Three

`In case, O Bhikkhus, there assemble in a certain residence on the day of Uposatha a number of resident Bhikkhus, four or more; they know that other resident Bhikkhus are about to enter the boundary. They know that other resident Bhikkhus have entered within the boundary. They see other resident Bhikkhus who are about to enter, and etc., who have entered, within the boundary. They hear that other resident Bhikkhus are about to enter, and etc., have entered within the boundary.'

Thus [61] a hundred and seventy-five systems of triads are produced which refer to resident and resident Bhikkhus [62]. [Then follow the same cases with regard to] resident and incoming Bhikkhus, incoming and resident Bhikkhus, incoming and incoming Bhikkhus. By putting these words [successively] into the peyyÓla [63], seven hundred triads are produced.
 

Section Thirty-Four

1. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus count the day as the fourteenth [of the pakkha], the incoming Bhikkhus as the fifteenth [64]; if the number of the resident Bhikkhus is greater, the incoming Bhikkhus ought to accommodate themselves to the resident Bhikkhus. If their number is equal, the incoming Bhikkhus ought to accommodate themselves to the resident Bhikkhus. If the number of the incoming Bhikkhus is greater, the resident Bhikkhus ought to accommodate themselves to the incoming Bhikkhus.

2. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus count the day as the fifteenth, the incoming Bhikkhus as the fourteenth; if, and etc. [sect.1].

3. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus count the day as the first [of the pakkha], the incoming Bhikkhus as the fifteenth [of the preceding pakkha]; if the number of the resident Bhikkhus is greater, the resident Bhikkhus need not, if they do not like, admit the incoming ones to their communion; let the incoming Bhikkhus go outside the boundary and hold [there] Uposatha. If their number is equal, and etc. [as in the preceding case]. If the number of the incoming Bhikkhus is greater, let the resident Bhikkhus either admit the incoming ones to their communion or go outside the boundary.

4. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus count the day as the fifteenth, the incoming Bhikkhus as the first [of the following pakkha]; if the number of the resident Bhikkhus is greater, let the incoming Bhikkhus either admit the resident Bhikkhus to their communion or go outside the boundary. If their number is equal, and etc. [as in the preceding case]. If the number of the incoming Bhikkhus is greater, the incoming Bhikkhus need not, if they do not like, admit the resident Bhikkhus to their communion; let the resident Bhikkhus go outside the boundary and hold Uposatha [there].

5. I in case, O Bhikkhus, the incoming Bhikkhus see the signs, the tokens the marks, the characteristics of [the presence of], resident Bhikkhus, well prepared beds and chairs and mats and pillows, food and water well provided for, well swept cells; seeing this, they begin to doubt: "Are there here any resident Bhikkhus or are there not?"

6. `Being doubtful they do not search, having not searched they hold Uposatha this is a dukka˝a offence. Being doubtful they search, searching they do not see them, not seeing them they hold Uposatha: [in this case] they are free from offence. Being doubtful they search, searching they set them, seeing them they hold Uposatha together: [in this case] they are free from offence. Being doubtful they search, searching they see them, seeing them they hold Uposatha apart: this is a dukka˝a offence. Being doubtful they search, searching they see them, seeing them they perish and become ruined [65], saying: "What are those people to us?" And risking a schism, they hold Uposatha: this is a thullaccaya [grave] offence.

7. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the incoming Bhikkhus hear the signs and etc. of [the presence of] resident Bhikkhus, the sound of their footsteps when they are walking, the sound of their rehearsal [of the Dhamma], of their clearing the throat and sneezing; hearing this they begin to doubt, and etc. [sects. 5, 6].

8. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus see the signs and etc. of [the presence of] incoming Bhikkhus, unknown bowls, unknown robes, unknown seats, [the traces of] foot-washing, water sprinkled about; seeing this they begin to doubt, and etc.

9. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus hear the signs and etc. of [the presence of] incoming Bhikkhus, the sound of their footsteps when they are arriving, the sound of their shaking out their shoes, clearing the throat, and sneezing; hearing this, and etc.

10. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the incoming Bhikkhus see resident Bhikkhus belonging to a different district; they take them as belonging to the same district; taking them as belonging to the same district they do not ask. Having not asked, they hold Uposatha together: [in this case] they are free from offence. They ask; having asked, they do not go through the matter; having not gone through the matter, they hold Uposatha together: this is a dukka˝a offence. They ask, and etc. [as in the last case], they hold Uposatha apart: [in this case] they are free from offence.

11. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the incoming Bhikkhus see resident Bhikkhus belonging to the same district. They take them as belonging to a different district; taking them, and etc. They do not ask; having not asked, they hold Uposatha together: this is a dukka˝a offence. They ask; having asked, they go through the matter; having gone through the matter, they hold Uposatha apart: this is a dukka˝a offence. They ask, and etc. [as in the last case], they hold Uposatha together: [in this case] they are free from offence.

12. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus see incoming Bhikkhus belonging to a different district, and etc. [see sect.10].

13. `In case, O Bhikkhus, the resident Bhikkhus see incoming Bhikkhus belonging to the same district, and etc. [see sect.11].'

Section Thirty-Five

1. `You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from a residence in which Bhikkhus are, to a residence in which no Bhikkhus are, except with a sa´gha [66] or in a case of danger [67]. You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from a residence in which Bhikkhus are, to a non-residence in which no Bhikkhus are, except, and etc. You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from a residence in which Bhikkhus are, to a residence or non-residence [68] in which no Bhikkhus are, except, and etc.

2. `You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from a non-residence in which Bhikkhus are, to a residence, and etc., to a non-residence, and etc., to a residence or non-residence in which no Bhikkhus are, except, and etc.

3. `You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from a residence or non-residence in which Bhikkhus are, to a residence, and etc., to a non-residence, and etc., to a residence or non-residence in which no Bhikkhus are, except, and etc.

4. `You ought not, O Bhikkhus, to go on the day of Uposatha from a residence in which Bhikkhus are, to a residence in which Bhikkhus are, if these Bhikkhus belong to a different district, except, and etc. [69]

5. `You may go, O Bhikkhus, on the day of Uposatha from a residence in which Bhikkhus are, to a residence in which Bhikkhus are, if these Bhikkhus belong to the same district, and if you know: "I can attain that place today." You may, and etc. [70]'
 

Section Thirty-Six

1. Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the PÓtimokkha in a seated assembly [of Bhikkhus] before a Bhikkhuni. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence. Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the PÓtimokkha in a seated assembly [of Bhikkhus] before a sikkhamÓnÓ [71], a sÓmanera, a sÓmaneri, one who has abandoned the precepts [72], one who is guilty of an extreme offence [73]. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence.

2. `Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the PÓtimokkha in a seated assembly [of Bhikkhus] before a [Bhikkhu] against whom expulsion has been pronounced for his refusal to see an offence [committed by himself], before a [Bhikkhu] against whom expulsion has been pronounced for his refusal to atone for such an offence, or for his refusal to renounce a false Doctrine. He who does, is to be treated according to the law [74].

3. `Let no one, O Bhikkhus, recite the PÓtimokkha in a seated assembly [of Bhikkhus] before a eunuch, before one who has furtively attached himself [to the sa´gha], and etc. [see chap.22.3], before a hermaphrodite. He who does, commits a dukka˝a offence.

4. Let no one, O Bhikkhus; hold Uposatha by [accepting] the pÓrisuddhi declaration [75] of a pÓrivÓsika [76], except if the assembly has not yet risen [at the time when the pÓrisuddhi is declared]. And let no one, O Bhikkhus, hold Uposatha on another day than the Uposatha day, except for the sake of [declaring the re-establishment of] concord among the sa´gha [77].'
 

End of the Third BhÓnavÓra in the Uposathakhandhaka.

 

Footnotes:

1. One should be inclined to understand that the paribbÓjakas assembled twice each half month, on the eighth day of the pakkha and on the fourteenth or fifteenth day, according to the different length of the pakkha. However, chap. 4 makes it probable that not two days in each pakkha are to be understood, but three. Compare, however, the remark of Buddhaghosa, quoted in the note on chap. 34. 1.

2. On the origin and the meaning of the title PÓtimokkha,' see our introduction, p. xxvii.

3.  See chap. 22. If a Bhikkhu is prevented by disease from assisting to the PÓtimokkha ceremony, he is to charge another Bhikkhu with. His pÓrisuddhi, i.e. with the solemn declaration that he is pure from the offences specified in the PÓtimokkha.

4.  These words are evidently the answer of the Bhikkhus then present to the proclamation of the pÓtimokkhuddesaka.

5.  See sect. 7.

6.  sects. 4-8 contain an explanation, word by word, of the formula given in sect. 3. This explanation is a portion of the ancient commentary on the PÓtimokkha which at the time of the redaction of the Vinaya Pi˝aka has been admitted into it in its full extent [see the introduction, p. xv seq.].

7.  See p. 241, note 1

8.  See p. 1, note 5.

9.  The five classes of offences are, the pÓrÓjika, sa´ghÓdisesa, pÓcittiya, pÓtidesaniya, dukka˝a offences; the seven classes, the pÓrÓjika, sa´ghÓdisesa, thullaccaya, pÓcittiya, pÓtidesaniya, dukka˝a, dubbhÓsita offences. See, for instance, Cullavagga ix, 3, 3.

10.  The PÓli text has `dukka˝a.' we cannot interpret here dukka˝a in the technical sense of a dukka˝a offence [see the introduction, p. xxiv], for intentional falsehood belongs to the class of the pÓcittiya offences, among which it occupies the first place.

11.  See the note on I, 78, 5.

12.  See chap. 5. 2.

13.  See the note on 1, 30, 4.

14.  I.e. to abolish the character of uposathÓgÓra conferred on the vihÓra-and etc. By the act of sammuti.

15.  Uposatha-pamukha [literally, that which has the Uposatha at its head, or, that which is situated in front of the Uposatha evidently means the place around the uposathÓgÓra, in which the PÓtimokkha recitation may be heard as well as in the uposathÓgÓra itself

16.  ManaŘ vuŰ■o ahosi.' Buddhaghosa: `Ńsakam appattavuŰ■abhÓvo ahosi.' ManaŘ is evidently the equivalent of Sanskrit manÓk.

17.  Buddhaghosa's note on this passage contains some details regarding the way which MahÓ Kassapa went. Andhakavinda is three gÓvuta distant from RÓjagaha. There were eighteen [?the MS. Reads: a˝˝hÓra mahÓvihÓra] great vihÓras around RÓjagaha included by the same boundary which Buddha himself had consecrated. The Uposatha service for this whole district was performed in the Veluvana monastery. The river which MahÓ Kassapa crossed on his way to the Veluvana was the SappinŃ, which rises in the Gijjhakň˝a mountain.

18.  TicŃvarena avippavÓsa means not parting with the three robes which belong to the usual `parikkhÓrÓ' [requisites] of a Bhikkhu. Bhikkhus were not allowed to part with their civaras, excepting under special circumstances and for a limited time [see the PÓtimokkha, 29th nissaggiya Dhamma]. Conferring the character of ticivarena avippavÓsa on a boundary means, we believe, to determine that it should be free td Bhikkhus residing within this boundary, to keep a set of robes wherever they liked within the same boundary [excepting in a village, sect. 3], and that such an act should not be considered as parting with the robes.

19.  Buddhaghosa observes that this rule applies to Bhikkhus only and not to Bhikkhunis. For Bhikkhunis reside only in villages; there would be no civaraparihÓra at all for Bhikkhunis, if they were to use the kammavÓcÓ given in sect. 4. Buddhaghosa also observes at this occasion that the boundaries of the Bhikkhusa´gha and of the Bhikkhunisa´gha are quite independent from each other and that the rules given in chap. 13 do not refer to boundaries the one of which belongs to the Bhikkhusa´gha, the other to the Bhikkhunisa´gha.

20.  As to the extent attributed to the `gÓmňpacÓra' [neighbourhood of the village], see the Vibha´ga, quoted by Minayeff, PrÓtim. P. 66, 1. 1.

21. This formula is identical with that given in sect. 2. The only difference is that after the words `The character of ticivarena avippavÓsa,' the words `Excepting villages and the neighbourhood of villages' are inserted.

22.  I abbhantara equals 28 hattha [Buddhaghosa and AbhidhÓnappadipikÓ,v.197]. See Rh.D., `Coins and Measures,' and etc., p.15.

23.  Buddhaghosa prescribes to leave an interstice of one hattha, and he adds that the ancient Sinhalese commentaries differ as to the measure required for this interstice: the Kurundi requires one vidatthi, the mahÓipaccari four a´gula.

24.  For a definition of lawfulness and unlawfulness of the official functions of the order as well as of completeness and incompleteness of the congregation by which such acts are performed, see IX, 3.

25.  The introduction [nidÓna] of the PÓtimokkha is the formula given above, chap. 3. 3.

26.  `AvasesaŘ sutena sÓvetabbaŘ,' i.e. it is to be proclaimed: `The four pÓrÓjika dhammÓ, and etc., Are known to the reverend brethren [literally, have been heard by the reverend brethren].'

27.  See sects. 6, 7. Read: `. . . I will answer the questions of N.N. about the Vinaya.' and,

`. . . Let N.N. answer the questions of N.N. about the Vinaya.'

28.  See sect. 8. Read . . . Shall [not] answer questions about the Vinaya.

29.  I.e. of reciting the PÓtimokkha himself or causing another Bhikkhu to do so.

30.  I.e. sama§as belonging to other schools. See chap. 1.

31.  Here follows an exact repetition of the story told in sect. 3, which is given here, of course, in the present tense.

32.  This appears to be the meaning of ga§amaggena ga§etuŘ; Buddhaghosa has no note on this passage.

33.  Enumeration's of terms indicating the different cases that come under a Vinaya rule or a dogmatical proposition are called mÓtikÓ for instance, in discussing the first pÓrÓjika rule the Vibha´ga gives the following mÓtikÓpadÓni: tisso itthiyo manussitthi amanussitthi tiracchÓnagatitthi, tayo ubhatovyaĄjanakÓ manussubhatovyaĄjanako amanussubh tiracchÓnagatubh., and etc. Most of the works belonging to the AbhiDhamma Pi˝aka are based on and opened by such mÓtikÓ lists.

34.  Or scrupulous,' in good sense.

35.  See I, 25, 12, with our note.

36.See III, 1 seq.

37.  See sect.3.

38.  PÓrisuddhi, literally, means, purely. He declares that he is pure from the offences specified in the, PÓtimokkha, and charges another Bhikkhu with proclaiming his declaration before the assembled chapter.

39.  We have no doubt that this is the correct translation of vibbhamati [see I, 39, 5]. The difference between vibbhamati [he returns to the world] and sikkhaŘ paccakkÓti [he abandons the precepts] seems to be that the former is an informal, and the latter a formal, renunciation of the order.

40.  Literally, on the spot, i.e. without setting out on his way to the assembly.

41.  The precepts are abandoned [sikkhÓ paccakkhÓtÓ hoti] by declaring that one abandons the Buddha, or the Dhamma, or the Sa´gha, or the Vinaya, and etc. By such a declaration a Bhikkhu who wishes to return to a layman's life, or to go over to a titthiya sect gives up his character as a member of the Buddhist fraternity. The rules about the sikkhÓpaccakkhÓna are given in the Vibha´ga, in the explanation of the first pÓrÓjika rule [chap. 8, sect. a].

42.  Most probably antimavatthu refers to the pÓrÓjika offences, which require excommunication.

43.  See the story given in I, 63.

44. Translated by I. B. Horner as `novice', Book of the Discipline, Vol. IV, p. vi

45.  The rules given here regarding the chanda [declaration of consent of an absentee] that is required for the performance of official acts are word for word the same as those set out in chap. 22. 1-4, regarding the pÓrisuddhi required at the Uposatha service.

46.  See sects. 1,2

47.  The quorum for several official acts of the order was five or more Bhikkhus; see ix, 4.

48.  Uposatha by mutual declaration of purity from the offences specified in the PÓtimokkha; see sect. 3 seq.

49.  The same phrase is repeated twice more.

50.  See sects. 3, 4. The Ąatti prescribed in the preceding case does not apply to this case.

51.  See chap. 22.

52.  See Cullavagga ix, 2.

53.  The decision given for the case of a smaller number of Bhikkhus arriving late, is here, and invariably throughout the following exposition, identical with the decision of the case of the number of Bhikkhus being equal on the two sides.

54.  The same three cases are distinguished here as in 3, according as the number of Bhikkhus who are late, is greater, the same, or smaller than that of the other Bhikkhus. The first case is decided by Buddha as above; in the decision of the second and third cases, instead of `let those [who have arrived late] hear the rest' read: I let those [who have arrived late] proclaim their pÓrisuddhi in the presence [of the other brethren]!

55.  The three triads of sects. 5, 6, 1 agree exactly with the triad of sect. 4.

56.  Here follow fifteen cases which are arranged exactly as in chap. 28. Instead of they who have recited it, are free from guilt, read: `They who have recited it, have committed a dukka˝a offence.'

57.  The decision of these fifteen cases is the same as in chap. 29.

58.  I.e. they destroy their own welfare by their wickedness.

59.  The decisions as in chap. 29; only read instead of `dukka˝a offence,' ` thullaccaya offence' [grave sin].

60.  Five times fifteen cases, in chaps. 28-32.

61.  Remarks like this, which indicate the rules for supplying abbreviated passages, do not belong, strictly speaking, to the text of the Vinaya itself, but form a posterior addition, as is shown also by grammatical peculiarities. In chaps. 28-32 we have seventy-five cases, or twenty-five triads; all of these triads contain the words: `they know that there are other resident Bhikkhus absent.' by successively varying these words six times, as is indicated in chap. 33, we obtain a hundred and seventy-five triads.

62.  I e. The assembled Bhikkhus as well as the incoming reside in the same avis.

63.  `PeyyÓla' is identical in meaning and, we believe, etymologically with `pariyÓya.' see Childers s. v.; H.O.'s remarks in Kuhn's Zeitschrift fňr Vergleichende Sprachforschung, vol. xxv, 324; Trenckner, PÓli Miscellany, p. 66.

64.  Buddhaghosa: `They who count the day as the fifteenth, arrive from a distant kingdom, or they have held the preceding Uposatha on the fourteenth.' it seems to follow from this remark of Buddhaghosa that after an Uposatha on the fourteenth invariably an Uposatha on the fifteenth must follow, i.e. the Uposatha may not he held on the fourteenth ad libitum, but only in the second pakkha of the short months. Compare chap. 4 and the note on chap. I. 1.

65.  See chap. 32.

66.  I.e. with a number of Bhikkhus sufficient for holding Uposatha.

67.  See chap. 15.4.

68.  Probably this means a place the quality of which, whether residence or non-residence, is doubtful.

69.  Nine cases are distinguished here quite as in sects. 1-3.

70.  Nine cases are distinguished here quite as in sects. 1-3.

71.  In the Bhikkhunikhandhaka [Cullav. X, 1, 4] we are told that Buddha, when admitting women to the order of mendicants, prescribed for them a probationary course of instruction, which should last two years, after which time they were to ask for the upasampadÓ ordination. During these two years the candidates were called sikkhamÓnÓs. Childers [Dict. s.v. sikkhati] has misunderstood the MahÓvaŘsa [p. 37], when he states that in the case of Asoka's daughter SamghamittÓ the training prescribed for the sikkhamÓnÓs was absolved in a single day.

72. See the note on chap. 22. 3.

73.  See the note on chap. 22. 3.

74.  The law alluded to most probably is the 69th pÓcittiya rule, which expressly treats only of the conduct towards Bhikkhus refusing to renounce false Doctrines, but it may be extended by analogy also to the two other categories of Bhikkhus mentioned in our passage.

75.  See chap. 22.3.

76.  I.e. a Bhikkhu subject to the penal discipline of parivÓsa, the rules of which are discussed at length in the second and third books of the Cullavagga.

77.  If a schism among the fraternity has been composed, the reconciled parties hold Uposatha together [X, 6, 14].

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