from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
For free distribution only.
Translator's note: This discourse mentions the metaphorical notion of "heartwood" (sara) three times. Although sara as a metaphor is often translated as "essence," this misses some of the metaphor's implications. When x is said to have y as its heartwood, that means that the proper development of x yields y, and that y is the most valuable part of x -- just as a tree, as it matures, develops heartwood, and the heartwood is the most valuable part of the tree.
"With what virtue,
nurturing what actions,
would a person become rightly based
and attain the ultimate goal?"
"One should be respectful
of one's superiors
& not envious;
should have a sense of the time
for seeing teachers;
should value the opportunity
when a talk on Dhamma's in progress;
should listen intently
to well-spoken words;
should go at the proper time,
humbly, casting off stubborness,
to one's teacher's presence;
should both recollect & follow
the Dhamma, its meaning,
restraint, & the holy life.
established in Dhamma,
with a sense of how
to investigate Dhamma,
one should not speak in ways
destructive of Dhamma,
should guide oneself
with true, well-spoken words.
one should go about free
Understanding's the heartwood
of well-spoken words;
concentration, the heartwood
of learning & understanding.
When a person is hasty &
his discernment & learning
While those who delight
in the doctrines taught by the noble ones,
in word, action, & mind.
They, established in
what discernment & learning
have as their heartwood."
1. According to the Commentary,
one's superiors include those who have more wisdom than oneself, more skill in
concentration and other aspects of the path than oneself, and those senior to
2. The Commentary says that the
right time to see a teacher is when one is overcome with passion, aversion, and
delusion, and cannot find a way out on one's own. This echoes a passage in AN
VI.26, in which Ven. Maha Kaccana says that the right time to visit a "monk
worthy of esteem" is when one needs help in overcoming any of the five
hindrances or when one doesn't yet have an appropriate theme to focus on to put
an end to the mind's fermentations.
3. The Commentary equates
"words destructive of the Dhamma" with "animal talk." See
the discussion under Pacittiya 85 in The Buddhist Monastic Code.
4. The heartwood of learning & discernment is release.